Eukaryotes use adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin- remodeling complexes to regulate gene expression. Here, we show that inositol polyphosphates can modulate the activities of several chromatin-remodeling complexes in vitro. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) inhibits nucleosome mobilization by NURF, ISW2, and INO80 complexes. In contrast, nucleosome mobilization by the yeast SWI/SNF complex is stimulated by inositol tetrakis-phosphate (IP4) and inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5). We demonstrate that mutations in genes encoding inositol polyphosphate kinases that produce IP4, IP5, and IP6 impair transcription in vivo. These results provide a link between inositol polyphosphates, chromatin remodeling, and gene expression.
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