Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is largely diagnosed incidentally on imaging taken for unrelated reasons. The management of localized lesions is primarily extirpative with excellent results. Treatment of advanced RCC has evolved over recent years with the use of targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and antibody-mediated therapies. The treatment response to these targeted therapies is highly variable, with no clear clinical method of identifying patients who will benefit from or not tolerate therapy. The field of molecular markers has evolved significantly in the last decade, with a multitude ofmarkers identified that predict treatment response and drug toxicity. The following review critically evaluates those molecular markers that have been assessed for their utility in predicting treatment response in patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Identifying the ideal treatment for these patients will improve responses to therapy, minimize morbidity, and save significant healthcare dollars.
- Metastatic renal cell carcinoma
- Prognostic markers
- Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas