NaF Inhibits Matrix-Bound Cathepsin-Mediated Dentin Matrix Degradation

Pinar Altinci, Murat Mutluay, Roda Seseogullari-Dirihan, David Pashley, Leo Tjäderhane, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs) degrade the collagen fibrils of demineralized dentin. Sodium fluoride (NaF) has previously been shown to inhibit recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NaF on the inhibition of dentin-bound MMPs and CCs. Dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. The baseline total MMP activity and dry masses were measured. Beams were assigned to test groups based on similar MMP activity and dry mass (n = 10/group), and incubated in artificial saliva (control) or artificial saliva with NaF containing 6-238 mM fluoride for 1, 7 and 21 days. The dry mass loss and MMP activities were reassessed at each time point. The proteolytic activity was screened by gelatin zymography. ICTP and CTX released to the incubation medium were analyzed as indices of MMP and cathepsin K activity, respectively. The beams were examined under scanning electron microscopy. All NaF doses reduced the dry mass loss after 21 days (p < 0.05). NaF inhibition of the total MMP activity ranged between 5 and 80%. In gelatin zymography, the bands of MMP-2 and MMP-9 became less prominent with increasing NaF levels. NaF did not decrease the released ICTP (p > 0.05). Less CTX release was detected with F ≥179 mM (p < 0.05). CaF2-like minerals were observed on the beams. High levels of NaF may slow the degradation of the dentin matrix due to the inhibition of cathepsin K. Fluoride does not seem effective in the direct inhibition of proteolysis by dentin matrix-bound MMPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)124-132
Number of pages9
JournalCaries Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • Collagen degradation
  • Cysteine cathepsins
  • Dentin matrix
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Sodium fluoride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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