New antiretroviral drugs: A review of the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and resistance profile of tipranavir, darunavir, etravirine, rilpivirine, maraviroc, and raltegravir

Christine A. Hughes, Linda Robinson, Alice Tseng, Rodger D. MacArthur

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

56 Scopus citations


Background: The introduction and approval of new antiretroviral agents in the US and Canada bring new opportunities and new challenges. Arguably, for the first time ever, clinicians have the drugs necessary to achieve the goal of suppressing HIV RNA to levels less than 50 copies/mL in even the most treatment-experienced patients and in those with extensive drug-limiting resistance mutations. However, the use of these new agents is complicated by many drug-drug interactions and - to some extent - pre-existing mutations. To derive maximum durability from the use of these newer drugs, a thorough understanding of their indications and limitations is critical. Objective: To thoroughly review the six most recently approved or soon-to-be-approved antiretroviral drugs in the US and Canada: tipranavir, darunavir, etravirine, rilpivirine, maraviroc, and raltegravir. Methods: Discussion of the indications for, and pharmacokinetics, resistance profile, activity, toxicity, and clinical trials results of, the six new agents. Results/conclusions: These six new agents have resulted in marked progress towards the goal of being able to provide HIV-infected individuals with the drugs necessary to achieve decades of durable suppression of HIV without substantial toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2445-2466
Number of pages22
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2009
Externally publishedYes



  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Darunavir
  • Etravirine
  • HIV
  • Maraviroc
  • Raltegravir
  • Rilpivirine
  • Tipranavir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this