Recognition memory is one of the domains of cognition that is often impaired in neurologic and psychiatric illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Accordingly, recognition memory is considered as an important therapeutic target in these disorders. Considerable preclinical evidence supports the argument that ligands at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may have the potential to improve several domains of cognition including recognition memory in the aforementioned neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of this chapter (while not all inclusive) is to provide an overview of a variety of nAChR ligands, which have been evaluated, in preclinical studies (specifically in rodents), for their effects on recognition memory in the classic (nonspatial) novel object recognition test. Due to their densities in the mammalian brain, the chapter will focus on ligands with high affinity for α4β2 nAChR and low affinity for α7 nAChR.