Non-polio enterovirus association with persistent diarrhea in children as revealed by a follow-up study of an Indian cohort during the first two years of life

Durga C. Rao, Harikrishna Reddy, K. Sudheendra, A. Raghavendra, Vembuli Varadharaj, Surekha Edula, Ramya Goparaju, Bharath Ratnakar, Arni S R Rao, Padmanabha P. Maiya, M. Ananda Babu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in children. Persistent diarrhea (PD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants below two years of age in developing countries. Understanding age-dependent frequency and duration of NPEV infections is important to determine their association with persistent diarrhea and disease burden. Objectives: A cohort of 140 infants was followed for 6 months to 2 years of age to determine the frequency, duration, and association with PD of NPEV infections in comparison with rotavirus and other agents. Study design: Stool samples were collected every 14 days, and diarrheal episodes and their duration were recorded. Enteroviruses were characterized by RT-PCR and VP1 gene sequence analysis, rotavirus by electropherotyping, and other agents by PCR. Results: Of 4545 samples, negative for oral polio vaccine strains, 3907 (85.96%) and 638 (14.04%) were NPEV-negative and NPEV-positive, respectively, representing 403 (8.87%) infection episodes. About 68% of NPEV infections occurred during the first year with every child having at least one episode lasting between four days and four months. Approximately 38% and 22% of total diarrheal episodes were positive for NPEV and RV, respectively. While about 18% of NPEV infection episodes were associated with diarrhea, 6% being persistent, 13% of total diarrheal episodes were persistent involving infections by monotype NPEV strains or sequential infections by multiple strains and other agents. Conclusions: This is the first report revealing NPEVs as the single most frequently and persistently detected viral pathogen in every PD episode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-131
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Virology
Volume61
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Enterovirus
Diarrhea
Enterovirus Infections
Rotavirus
Infection
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Infant Mortality
Poliomyelitis
Developing Countries
Sequence Analysis
Vaccines
Morbidity
Genes

Keywords

  • Acute diarrhea
  • Enterovirus (EV)
  • Non-polio enterovirus (NPEV)
  • Persistent diarrhea (PD)
  • Rotavirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Non-polio enterovirus association with persistent diarrhea in children as revealed by a follow-up study of an Indian cohort during the first two years of life. / Rao, Durga C.; Reddy, Harikrishna; Sudheendra, K.; Raghavendra, A.; Varadharaj, Vembuli; Edula, Surekha; Goparaju, Ramya; Ratnakar, Bharath; Rao, Arni S R; Maiya, Padmanabha P.; Ananda Babu, M.

In: Journal of Clinical Virology, Vol. 61, No. 1, 01.01.2014, p. 125-131.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rao, DC, Reddy, H, Sudheendra, K, Raghavendra, A, Varadharaj, V, Edula, S, Goparaju, R, Ratnakar, B, Rao, ASR, Maiya, PP & Ananda Babu, M 2014, 'Non-polio enterovirus association with persistent diarrhea in children as revealed by a follow-up study of an Indian cohort during the first two years of life', Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2014.05.015
Rao, Durga C. ; Reddy, Harikrishna ; Sudheendra, K. ; Raghavendra, A. ; Varadharaj, Vembuli ; Edula, Surekha ; Goparaju, Ramya ; Ratnakar, Bharath ; Rao, Arni S R ; Maiya, Padmanabha P. ; Ananda Babu, M. / Non-polio enterovirus association with persistent diarrhea in children as revealed by a follow-up study of an Indian cohort during the first two years of life. In: Journal of Clinical Virology. 2014 ; Vol. 61, No. 1. pp. 125-131.
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abstract = "We recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in children. Persistent diarrhea (PD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants below two years of age in developing countries. Understanding age-dependent frequency and duration of NPEV infections is important to determine their association with persistent diarrhea and disease burden. Objectives: A cohort of 140 infants was followed for 6 months to 2 years of age to determine the frequency, duration, and association with PD of NPEV infections in comparison with rotavirus and other agents. Study design: Stool samples were collected every 14 days, and diarrheal episodes and their duration were recorded. Enteroviruses were characterized by RT-PCR and VP1 gene sequence analysis, rotavirus by electropherotyping, and other agents by PCR. Results: Of 4545 samples, negative for oral polio vaccine strains, 3907 (85.96{\%}) and 638 (14.04{\%}) were NPEV-negative and NPEV-positive, respectively, representing 403 (8.87{\%}) infection episodes. About 68{\%} of NPEV infections occurred during the first year with every child having at least one episode lasting between four days and four months. Approximately 38{\%} and 22{\%} of total diarrheal episodes were positive for NPEV and RV, respectively. While about 18{\%} of NPEV infection episodes were associated with diarrhea, 6{\%} being persistent, 13{\%} of total diarrheal episodes were persistent involving infections by monotype NPEV strains or sequential infections by multiple strains and other agents. Conclusions: This is the first report revealing NPEVs as the single most frequently and persistently detected viral pathogen in every PD episode.",
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AU - Reddy, Harikrishna

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AU - Raghavendra, A.

AU - Varadharaj, Vembuli

AU - Edula, Surekha

AU - Goparaju, Ramya

AU - Ratnakar, Bharath

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AU - Maiya, Padmanabha P.

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