Intensity of the preparative regimen is an important component of allogeneic transplantations for myelodysplasia (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We compared outcomes after a truly nonablative regimen (120 mg/m2 fludarabine, 4 g/m2 cytarabine, and 36 mg/m 2 idarubicin [FAI]) and a more myelosuppressive, reduced-intensity regimen (100 to 150 mg/m2 fludarabine and 140 or 180 mg/m2 melphalan [FM]). We performed a retrospective analysis of 94 patients with MDS (n = 26) and AML (n = 68) treated with FM (n = 62) and FAI (n = 32). The FAI group had a higher proportion of patients in complete remission (CR) at transplantation (44% versus 16%, P = .006), patients in first CR (28% versus 3%, P = .008), and HLA-matched sibling donors (81% versus 40%, P = .001). Median follow-up is 40 months. FM was significantly associated with a higher degree of donor cell engraftment, higher cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM; P = .036), and lower cumulative incidence of relapse-related mortality (P = .029). Relapse rate after FAI and FM was 61% and 30%, respectively. Actuarial 3-year survival rate was 30% after FAI and 35% following FM. In a multivariate analysis of patient- and treatment-related prognostic factors, progression-free survival was improved after FM, for patients in CR at transplantation, and for those with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Survival was improved for patients in CR at transplantation. In conclusion, FM provided better disease control though at a cost of increased TRM and morbidity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology