Optical genome mapping as a next-generation cytogenomic tool for detection of structural and copy number variations for prenatal genomic analyses

Nikhil Shri Sahajpal, Hayk Barseghyan, Ravindra Kolhe, Alex Hastie, Alka Chaubey

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Global medical associations (ACOG, ISUOG, ACMG) recommend diagnostic prenatal testing for the detection and prevention of genetic disorders. Historically, cytogenetic methods such as karyotype analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosomal microarray (CMA) are utilized worldwide to diagnose common syndromes. However, the limitations of each of these methods, either performed in tandem or simultaneously, demonstrates the need of a revolutionary technology that can alleviate the need for multiple technologies. Optical genome mapping (OGM) is a novel method that fills this void by being able to detect all classes of structural variations (SVs), including copy number variations (CNVs). OGM is being adopted by laboratories as a tool for both postnatal constitutional genetic disorders and hematological malignancies. This commentary highlights the potential for OGM to become a standard of care in prenatal genetic testing based on its capability to comprehensively identify large balanced and unbalanced SVs (currently the strength of karyotyping and metaphase FISH), CNVs (by CMA), repeat contraction disorders (by Southern blotting) and multiple repeat expansion disorders (by PCR-based methods or Southern blotting). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods are excellent at detecting sequence variants, but they are unable to accurately resolve repeat regions of the genome, which limits their ability to detect all classes of SVs. Notably, multiple molecular methods are used to identify repeat expansion and contraction disorders in routine clinical laboratories around the world. With non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) becoming the standard of care screening assay for all global pregnancies, we anticipate that OGM can provide a high-resolution, cytogenomic assay to be employed following a positive NIPT screen or for high-risk pregnancies with an abnormal ultrasound. Accurate detection of all types of genetic disorders by OGM, such as liveborn aneuploidies, sex chromosome anomalies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, repeat expansion/contraction disorders is key to reducing the global burden of genetic disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number398
JournalGenes
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Aneuploidies
  • Chromosomal aberrations
  • Copy number variation
  • Cytogenetics
  • Cytogenomics
  • OGM
  • Optical genome mapping
  • Prenatal genetic testing
  • Structural variation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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