Oropharyngeal candidiasis may be the first manifestation of human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection, and more than 90% of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop the disease. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole), have largely replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet, nystatin) in the management of the disease in these patients. A concern in these patients is clinical relapse, which appears to be dependent on degree of immunosuppression and is more common with clotrimazole and ketoconazole than with fluconazole or itraconazole. Candida esophagitis is also of concern, since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS. Fluconazole is an integral part of management. A cyclodextrin oral solution formulation of itraconazole has similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and is an effective alternative. In patients with fluconazole-resistant mucocutaneous candidiasis, treatment options include itraconazole and amphotericin B oral suspension and parenteral preparation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)