BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the effect of routine antithrombin III (AT3) infusion on hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications, blood product utilization, and circuit lifespan in neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 162 infants placed on ECMO for hypoxic respiratory failure. Infants requiring ECMO for primary cardiac support were excluded. Demographic data, time on ECMO, blood product usage, coagulation profile, and complications were compared between 90 control patients and 72 patients treated with AT3.
RESULTS: Infants receiving AT3 during ECMO had less thrombotic and similar bleeding complications as compared to infants receiving standard anticoagulation therapy. Total blood product infusion during ECMO was decreased (54.7±20.1 vs. 67.4±34.9mL/kg per day, p=0.001) in infants receiving AT3 during ECMO. Tighter control of activated clotting time and higher serum heparin anti-Xa levels were observed in the AT3 cohort during the first days of ECMO support. 1st ECMO circuit lifespan did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Routine administration of AT3 in neonates receiving ECMO therapy was associated with tighter control of anticoagulation and a reduction in thrombotic events without increasing unwanted bleeding. However, circuit lifespan was unaffected.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.
- Antithrombin III
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health