Pediatric occipital condyle morphometric analysis using computed tomography with evaluation for occipital condyle screw placement

Angela G. Viers, Khoi D. Nguyen, Perounsack X. Moon, Scott Evan Forseen, Ian M. Heger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Occipitocervical fusions in the pediatric population are rare but can be challenging because of the smaller anatomy. The procedure is even more exacting in patients with prior suboccipital craniectomy. A proposed method for occipitocervical fusion in such patients is the use of occipital condyle screws. There is very limited literature evaluating the pediatric occipital condyle for screw placement. The authors examined the occipital condyle in pediatric patients to determine if there was an age cutoff at which condylar screw placement is contraindicated. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective morphometric analysis of the occipital condyle in 518 pediatric patients aged 1 week–9 years old. Patients in their first decade of life whose occipital condyle was demonstrated on CT imaging in the period from 2009 to 2013 at the Augusta University Medical Center and Children’s Hospital of Georgia were eligible for inclusion in this study. Exclusion criteria were an age older than 10 years; traumatic, inflammatory, congenital, or neoplastic lesions of the occipital condyles; and any previous surgery of the occipitocervical junction. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed including calculation of the mean, standard deviation, and confidence intervals for all measurements. Probability values were calculated using the Student t-test with statistical significance determined by p < 0.05. RESULTS Overall, male patients had statistically significantly larger occipital condyles than the female patients, but this difference was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in left versus right occipital condyles. There were statistically significant differences between age groups with a general trend toward older children having larger occipital condyles. Overall, 20.65% of all patients evaluated had at least one measurement that would prevent occipital condyle screw placement including at least one patient in every age group. CONCLUSIONS Occipital condyle screw fixation is feasible in pediatric patients younger than 10 years. More importantly, all pediatric patients should undergo critical evaluation of the occipital condyle in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes preoperatively to determine individual suitability for occipital condyle screw placement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)634-638
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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Tomography
Pediatrics
Bone and Bones
Age Groups
Anatomy
Confidence Intervals
Students

Keywords

  • Craniocervical fusion
  • Morphometric analysis
  • Occipital condyle screw
  • Pediatric occipital condyle
  • Spine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Pediatric occipital condyle morphometric analysis using computed tomography with evaluation for occipital condyle screw placement. / Viers, Angela G.; Nguyen, Khoi D.; Moon, Perounsack X.; Forseen, Scott Evan; Heger, Ian M.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Vol. 23, No. 5, 01.05.2019, p. 634-638.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "OBJECTIVE Occipitocervical fusions in the pediatric population are rare but can be challenging because of the smaller anatomy. The procedure is even more exacting in patients with prior suboccipital craniectomy. A proposed method for occipitocervical fusion in such patients is the use of occipital condyle screws. There is very limited literature evaluating the pediatric occipital condyle for screw placement. The authors examined the occipital condyle in pediatric patients to determine if there was an age cutoff at which condylar screw placement is contraindicated. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective morphometric analysis of the occipital condyle in 518 pediatric patients aged 1 week–9 years old. Patients in their first decade of life whose occipital condyle was demonstrated on CT imaging in the period from 2009 to 2013 at the Augusta University Medical Center and Children’s Hospital of Georgia were eligible for inclusion in this study. Exclusion criteria were an age older than 10 years; traumatic, inflammatory, congenital, or neoplastic lesions of the occipital condyles; and any previous surgery of the occipitocervical junction. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed including calculation of the mean, standard deviation, and confidence intervals for all measurements. Probability values were calculated using the Student t-test with statistical significance determined by p < 0.05. RESULTS Overall, male patients had statistically significantly larger occipital condyles than the female patients, but this difference was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in left versus right occipital condyles. There were statistically significant differences between age groups with a general trend toward older children having larger occipital condyles. Overall, 20.65{\%} of all patients evaluated had at least one measurement that would prevent occipital condyle screw placement including at least one patient in every age group. CONCLUSIONS Occipital condyle screw fixation is feasible in pediatric patients younger than 10 years. More importantly, all pediatric patients should undergo critical evaluation of the occipital condyle in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes preoperatively to determine individual suitability for occipital condyle screw placement.",
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AU - Nguyen, Khoi D.

AU - Moon, Perounsack X.

AU - Forseen, Scott Evan

AU - Heger, Ian M.

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N2 - OBJECTIVE Occipitocervical fusions in the pediatric population are rare but can be challenging because of the smaller anatomy. The procedure is even more exacting in patients with prior suboccipital craniectomy. A proposed method for occipitocervical fusion in such patients is the use of occipital condyle screws. There is very limited literature evaluating the pediatric occipital condyle for screw placement. The authors examined the occipital condyle in pediatric patients to determine if there was an age cutoff at which condylar screw placement is contraindicated. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective morphometric analysis of the occipital condyle in 518 pediatric patients aged 1 week–9 years old. Patients in their first decade of life whose occipital condyle was demonstrated on CT imaging in the period from 2009 to 2013 at the Augusta University Medical Center and Children’s Hospital of Georgia were eligible for inclusion in this study. Exclusion criteria were an age older than 10 years; traumatic, inflammatory, congenital, or neoplastic lesions of the occipital condyles; and any previous surgery of the occipitocervical junction. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed including calculation of the mean, standard deviation, and confidence intervals for all measurements. Probability values were calculated using the Student t-test with statistical significance determined by p < 0.05. RESULTS Overall, male patients had statistically significantly larger occipital condyles than the female patients, but this difference was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in left versus right occipital condyles. There were statistically significant differences between age groups with a general trend toward older children having larger occipital condyles. Overall, 20.65% of all patients evaluated had at least one measurement that would prevent occipital condyle screw placement including at least one patient in every age group. CONCLUSIONS Occipital condyle screw fixation is feasible in pediatric patients younger than 10 years. More importantly, all pediatric patients should undergo critical evaluation of the occipital condyle in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes preoperatively to determine individual suitability for occipital condyle screw placement.

AB - OBJECTIVE Occipitocervical fusions in the pediatric population are rare but can be challenging because of the smaller anatomy. The procedure is even more exacting in patients with prior suboccipital craniectomy. A proposed method for occipitocervical fusion in such patients is the use of occipital condyle screws. There is very limited literature evaluating the pediatric occipital condyle for screw placement. The authors examined the occipital condyle in pediatric patients to determine if there was an age cutoff at which condylar screw placement is contraindicated. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective morphometric analysis of the occipital condyle in 518 pediatric patients aged 1 week–9 years old. Patients in their first decade of life whose occipital condyle was demonstrated on CT imaging in the period from 2009 to 2013 at the Augusta University Medical Center and Children’s Hospital of Georgia were eligible for inclusion in this study. Exclusion criteria were an age older than 10 years; traumatic, inflammatory, congenital, or neoplastic lesions of the occipital condyles; and any previous surgery of the occipitocervical junction. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed including calculation of the mean, standard deviation, and confidence intervals for all measurements. Probability values were calculated using the Student t-test with statistical significance determined by p < 0.05. RESULTS Overall, male patients had statistically significantly larger occipital condyles than the female patients, but this difference was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in left versus right occipital condyles. There were statistically significant differences between age groups with a general trend toward older children having larger occipital condyles. Overall, 20.65% of all patients evaluated had at least one measurement that would prevent occipital condyle screw placement including at least one patient in every age group. CONCLUSIONS Occipital condyle screw fixation is feasible in pediatric patients younger than 10 years. More importantly, all pediatric patients should undergo critical evaluation of the occipital condyle in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes preoperatively to determine individual suitability for occipital condyle screw placement.

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