This study evaluated healing, with emphasis on root resorption, following root surface treatment with 1% aqueous stannous fluoride (SnF2), saturated citric acid (CA), or saline control (C) in conjunction with periodontal flap surgery. Supraalveolar periodontal defects were surgically created and immediately treated in the mandibular premolars in 6 beagle dogs. The defect height approximated 5 to 6 mm from the reduced alveolar bone to the cemento-enamel junction. Root treatments were rotated between experimental teeth within jaw quadrants and duplicated in left and right quadrants in the dogs. Flaps were raised to cover most of the crowns of the teeth and sutured. The dogs were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery and tissue blocks with teeth and adjacent structures were processed for histometric analysis. SnF2-treated teeth healed with significantly longer junctional epithelium, less connective tissue repair to the root surface, and less bone regeneration than CA and C-treated teeth. New cementum formation was limited in all treatment groups. Root resorption was observed in almost all teeth exhibiting connective tissue repair, however to a lesser amount and not as frequent in SnF2 treated teeth due to limited connective tissue repair. No differences were found in amount and frequency of root resorption in CA and C-treated teeth. An inhibitory effect on root resorption of SnF2 could not be disclosed in this experiment, however, it may be concluded that CA treatment of the root surface in conjunction with reconstructive periodontal flap surgery does not seem to enhance root resorption.
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