Purpose. The purpose of this review was, first, to critically evaluate published evidence on the effects of artificial crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) on adjacent periodontal tissue health, and second to synthesize this evidence into meaningful summaries. Restoration qualities that contribute to inflammatory responses were identified based on strength of evidence, and variables that should be controlled in future investigations were outlined. Such information is necessary to accurately predict the prognosis of periodontal tissues adjacent to crowns or FPDs. Methods. Clinical trial and epidemiologic evidence published in English was collected. The effects of crowns or FPDs on gingival inflammation, probing depths, and bone loss were evaluated based on accuracy of measurement, reliability of measurement, and/or appropriateness of data analysis. Results. Crowns and FPDs increased the incidence of advanced gingival inflammation adjacent to restorations, particularly if restorations had intracrevicular finish line placement, poor marginal adaptation, or rough surfaces. However, because of the limitation in the accuracy and reliability of probing depth measurements, reports of greater mean probing depths of crowned teeth, which tended to be less than 1 mm greater than control teeth, should be questioned. Finally, crowns and FPDs in general did not accelerate the rate of adjacent bone loss. Conclusion. Clinically deficient restorations, as well as clinically acceptable restorations, can contribute to gingival inflammation. However, with the limitations of the applied methods of measurement, current evidence has not shown an increased attachment loss adjacent to crowns or FPDs. Future trials should document periodontal health before therapy and periodically after restoration insertion so that each tooth serves as its own control. In future studies, the periodontal disease history of the patient, the influence of the restoration on plaque formation, and the composition of the crevicular microflora must be recorded.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Oral Surgery