Matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP3) activation mediates the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced hemorrhagic transformation after stroke. Hyperglycemia (HG) further exacerbates this outcome. We have recently shown that HG increases MMP3 activity in the brain after stroke. However, the combined HG-tPA effect on MMP3 activation, and the mechanisms through which MMP3 is activated were not previously reported. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that tPA and HG increases MMP3 activity in the brain after stroke through peroxynitrite induced tyrosine nitration. Normoglycemic and mildly hyperglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery suture occlusion for 90 min or thromboembolic occlusion, and up to 24 h reperfusion, with and without tPA. MMP3 activity and tyrosine nitration were evaluated in brain homogenates at 24 h. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) were subjected to either 3 h hypoxia or 6 h OGD under either normal or high glucose conditions with or without tPA, with or without peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTPPs. MMP3 activity and MMP3 tyrosine nitration were assessed at 24 h. HG and tPA significantly increased activity and tyrosine nitration of MMP3 in the brain. In BMVECs, tPA but not HG increased MMP3 activity. Treating BMVEC with FeTPPs significantly reduced the tPA-induced increase in MMP3 activity and nitration. Augmented oxidative and nitrative stress may be potential mechanisms contributing to MMP3 activation in hyperglycemic stroke, especially with tPA administration. Peroxynitrite may be playing a critical role in mediating MMP3 activation through tyrosine nitration in hyperglycemic stroke.
- Hemorrhagic transformation
- Matrix metalloprotease 3
- Tissue plasminogen activator
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience