Population, genetic, and antigenic diversity of the apicomplexan Eimeria tenella and their relevance to vaccine development

Damer P. Blake, Emily L. Clark, Sarah E. Macdonald, Venkatachalam Thenmozhi, Krishnendu Kundu, Rajat Garg, Isa D. Jatau, Simeon Ayoade, Fumiya Kawahara, Abdalgader Moftah, Adam James Reid, Ayotunde O. Adebambo, Ramón Álvarez Zapata, Arni S.R.Srinivasa Rao, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Partha S. Banerjee, G. Dhinakar-Raj, M. Raman, Fiona M. Tomley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The phylum Apicomplexa includes serious pathogens of humans and animals. Understanding the distribution and population structure of these protozoan parasites is of fundamental importance to explain disease epidemiology and develop sustainable controls. Predicting the likely efficacy and longevity of subunit vaccines in field populations relies on knowledge of relevant preexisting antigenic diversity, population structure, the likelihood of coinfection by genetically distinct strains, and the efficiency of cross-fertilization. All four of these factors have been investigated for Plasmodium species parasites, revealing both clonal and panmictic population structures with exceptional polymorphism associated with immunoprotective antigens such as apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). For the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii only genomic diversity and population structure have been defined in depth so far; for the closely related Eimeria species, all four variables are currently unknown. Using Eimeria tenella, a major cause of the enteric disease coccidiosis, which exerts a profound effect on chicken productivity and welfare, we determined population structure, genotype distribution, and likelihood of crossfertilization during coinfection and also investigated the extent of naturally occurring antigenic diversity for the E. tenella AMA1 homolog. Using genome-wide Sequenom SNP-based haplotyping, targeted sequencing, and single-cell genotyping, we show that in this coccidian the functionality of EtAMA1 appears to outweigh immune evasion. This result is in direct contrast to the situation in Plasmodium and most likely is underpinned by the biology of the direct and acute coccidian life cycle in the definitive host.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E5343-E5350
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume112
Issue number38
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 22 2015

Fingerprint

Eimeria tenella
Antigenic Variation
Population Genetics
Vaccines
Plasmodium
Coinfection
Antigens
Population
Parasites
Apicomplexa
Coccidiosis
Immune Evasion
Eimeria
Metagenomics
Subunit Vaccines
Membranes
Toxoplasma
Life Cycle Stages
Fertilization
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

Keywords

  • Chickens
  • Coccidiosis
  • Eimeria
  • Food security
  • Population structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Population, genetic, and antigenic diversity of the apicomplexan Eimeria tenella and their relevance to vaccine development. / Blake, Damer P.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Thenmozhi, Venkatachalam; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Jatau, Isa D.; Ayoade, Simeon; Kawahara, Fumiya; Moftah, Abdalgader; Reid, Adam James; Adebambo, Ayotunde O.; Zapata, Ramón Álvarez; Rao, Arni S.R.Srinivasa; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Banerjee, Partha S.; Dhinakar-Raj, G.; Raman, M.; Tomley, Fiona M.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 112, No. 38, 22.09.2015, p. E5343-E5350.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Blake, DP, Clark, EL, Macdonald, SE, Thenmozhi, V, Kundu, K, Garg, R, Jatau, ID, Ayoade, S, Kawahara, F, Moftah, A, Reid, AJ, Adebambo, AO, Zapata, RÁ, Rao, ASRS, Thangaraj, K, Banerjee, PS, Dhinakar-Raj, G, Raman, M & Tomley, FM 2015, 'Population, genetic, and antigenic diversity of the apicomplexan Eimeria tenella and their relevance to vaccine development', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 112, no. 38, pp. E5343-E5350. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1506468112
Blake, Damer P. ; Clark, Emily L. ; Macdonald, Sarah E. ; Thenmozhi, Venkatachalam ; Kundu, Krishnendu ; Garg, Rajat ; Jatau, Isa D. ; Ayoade, Simeon ; Kawahara, Fumiya ; Moftah, Abdalgader ; Reid, Adam James ; Adebambo, Ayotunde O. ; Zapata, Ramón Álvarez ; Rao, Arni S.R.Srinivasa ; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy ; Banerjee, Partha S. ; Dhinakar-Raj, G. ; Raman, M. ; Tomley, Fiona M. / Population, genetic, and antigenic diversity of the apicomplexan Eimeria tenella and their relevance to vaccine development. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 ; Vol. 112, No. 38. pp. E5343-E5350.
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