Prevalence of and screening for mental disorders in a sleep clinic.

Kent J. DeZee, Christos Hatzigeorgiou, David Kristo, Jeffrey L. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients seen in sleep clinics have been reported to have a high prevalence of mental disorders, but there is no recommended method for screening. We sought to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, using a validated screening instrument, among referrals to a sleep clinic and to determine whether referred patients with mental disorders were less likely to have an underlying diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: Consecutive adult new referrals to a sleep clinic at a tertiary care center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional assessment of mental and sleep disorders. All patients were screened for mental disorders with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders prior to their appointment with the sleep provider. Sleep disorders were diagnosed as per the sleep provider's judgment, usually by polysomnography. RESULTS: From 217 invited participants, 171 completed the survey and could be linked to clinical data. Eighty-one percent underwent polysomnography, and most (83%) had a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. Thirty-eight patients (22%) had at least 1 mental disorder, and 17 (10%) had 2. Eleven percent of patients had major depression, 7% minor depression, 3% panic disorder, and 12% anxiety not otherwise specified. Patients with an underlying mental disorder were significantly less likely to have a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing, compared to those without an underlying mental disorder (66% vs 87%, P = .004). ABBREVIATIONS: MMPI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; MOS SF-6, Multiple Outcomes Study Short Form 6; OSA, Obstructive sleep apnea; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-15, Patient Health Questionnaire-15; PRIME-MD, Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; RDI, Respiratory Disturbance Index; SCL-90, Symptom Distress Check List. CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorders are common in adults referred to sleep clinics. Those with a mental disorder are less likely to have a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. A negative sleep study should prompt clinicians to consider possible underlying psychiatric disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-142
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Volume1
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 15 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Mental Disorders
Sleep
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
MMPI
Polysomnography
Primary Health Care
Referral and Consultation
Depression
Panic Disorder
Health
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Tertiary Care Centers
Psychiatry
Appointments and Schedules
Anxiety
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Neurology

Cite this

Prevalence of and screening for mental disorders in a sleep clinic. / DeZee, Kent J.; Hatzigeorgiou, Christos; Kristo, David; Jackson, Jeffrey L.

In: Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 2, 15.04.2005, p. 136-142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients seen in sleep clinics have been reported to have a high prevalence of mental disorders, but there is no recommended method for screening. We sought to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, using a validated screening instrument, among referrals to a sleep clinic and to determine whether referred patients with mental disorders were less likely to have an underlying diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: Consecutive adult new referrals to a sleep clinic at a tertiary care center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional assessment of mental and sleep disorders. All patients were screened for mental disorders with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders prior to their appointment with the sleep provider. Sleep disorders were diagnosed as per the sleep provider's judgment, usually by polysomnography. RESULTS: From 217 invited participants, 171 completed the survey and could be linked to clinical data. Eighty-one percent underwent polysomnography, and most (83{\%}) had a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. Thirty-eight patients (22{\%}) had at least 1 mental disorder, and 17 (10{\%}) had 2. Eleven percent of patients had major depression, 7{\%} minor depression, 3{\%} panic disorder, and 12{\%} anxiety not otherwise specified. Patients with an underlying mental disorder were significantly less likely to have a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing, compared to those without an underlying mental disorder (66{\%} vs 87{\%}, P = .004). ABBREVIATIONS: MMPI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; MOS SF-6, Multiple Outcomes Study Short Form 6; OSA, Obstructive sleep apnea; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-15, Patient Health Questionnaire-15; PRIME-MD, Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; RDI, Respiratory Disturbance Index; SCL-90, Symptom Distress Check List. CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorders are common in adults referred to sleep clinics. Those with a mental disorder are less likely to have a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing. A negative sleep study should prompt clinicians to consider possible underlying psychiatric disease.",
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