Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues

Gerene M. Denning, Laynez W. Ackermann, Thomas J. Barna, John G. Armstrong, Lynn L. Stoll, Neal Lee Weintraub, Eric W. Dickson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Enkephalins are opioid peptides that are found at high levels in the brain and endocrine tissues. Studies have shown that enkephalins play an important role in behavior, pain, cardiac function, cellular growth, immunity, and ischemic tolerance. Our global hypothesis is that enkephalins are released from non-neuronal tissues in response to brief ischemia or exercise, and that this release contributes to cardioprotection. To identify tissues that could serve as potential sources of enkephalins, we used real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, immunofluorescence microscopy, and ex vivo models of enkephalin release. We found widespread expression of preproenkephalin (pPENK) mRNA and production of the enkephalin precursor protein proenkephalin (PENK) in rat and mouse tissues, as well as in tissues and cells from humans and pigs. Immunofluorescence microscopy with anti-enkephalin antisera demonstrated immunoreactivity in rat tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle myocytes, intestinal and kidney epithelium, and intestinal smooth muscle cells. Finally, isolated tissue studies showed that heart, skeletal muscle, and intestine released enkephalins ex vivo. Together our studies indicate that multiple non-neuronal tissues produce PENK and release enkephalins. These data support the hypothesis that non-neuronal tissues could play a role in both local and systemic enkephalin-mediated effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-92
Number of pages10
JournalPeptides
Volume29
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008

Fingerprint

Enkephalins
Tissue
Muscle
Fluorescence Microscopy
Rats
Myocardium
Microscopic examination
Skeletal Muscle
proenkephalin
Protein Precursors
Opioid Peptides
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Intestinal Mucosa
Cellular Immunity
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Intestines
Immune Sera
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Brain
Swine

Keywords

  • Enkephalins
  • Gene expression
  • Proenkephalin
  • Skeletal muscle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Denning, G. M., Ackermann, L. W., Barna, T. J., Armstrong, J. G., Stoll, L. L., Weintraub, N. L., & Dickson, E. W. (2008). Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues. Peptides, 29(1), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2007.11.004

Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues. / Denning, Gerene M.; Ackermann, Laynez W.; Barna, Thomas J.; Armstrong, John G.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Weintraub, Neal Lee; Dickson, Eric W.

In: Peptides, Vol. 29, No. 1, 01.01.2008, p. 83-92.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Denning, GM, Ackermann, LW, Barna, TJ, Armstrong, JG, Stoll, LL, Weintraub, NL & Dickson, EW 2008, 'Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues', Peptides, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2007.11.004
Denning, Gerene M. ; Ackermann, Laynez W. ; Barna, Thomas J. ; Armstrong, John G. ; Stoll, Lynn L. ; Weintraub, Neal Lee ; Dickson, Eric W. / Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues. In: Peptides. 2008 ; Vol. 29, No. 1. pp. 83-92.
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