Promoting higher student mathematics achievement in online settings: Introducing PHiSMAOS

Emma Bullock, Amy Ray, Beth Cory, Julie Herron

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter describes how the authors structured effective online mathematics content courses for preservice teachers (PSTs) using the promoting higher student mathematics achievement in online settings (PHiSMAOS) conceptual framework. This framework focuses on the mathematics teacher educator (MTE) view from which they are using their technological content knowledge (TCK) to develop their PSTs' own technological knowledge (TK), content knowledge (CK), and TCK when in an online mathematics classroom setting. The PHiSMAOS conceptual framework then wraps this reality in the concepts of growth mindset and productive struggle, providing a pragmatic way for MTEs to productively promote growth mindset in PSTs' mathematics content classrooms in online settings. This framework was developed using grounded theory research techniques from data consisting of exit cards, video-recorded discussions, assignments, and test scores across seven semesters of the authors' courses. Implications for MTEs, use in K-12 settings, and further research are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Research on Transforming Teachers' Online Pedagogical Reasoning for Engaging K-12 Students in Virtual Learning
PublisherIGI Global
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781799872245
ISBN (Print)9781799872221
StatePublished - Jun 25 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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