Background: Reduced hemoglobin has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure, but the relationship of hemoglobin to health-related quality of life in outpatients with this syndrome has not been well studied. Methods: We used data from the prospective, observational Study of Anemia in a Heart Failure Population Registry, which randomly selected outpatients with heart failure from specialty or community cardiology clinics. Hemoglobin was determined by finger stick at baseline and during medically indicated follow-up visits. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire at 3-month intervals for 12 months. Results: Adjusted regression analysis demonstrated a significant, direct, linear relationship between hemoglobin and health-related quality of life from baseline through 12 months follow-up on all Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire domains (all P < .001) and the Summary and Physical domains of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (all P < .05). Adjusted categorical analysis of the change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical scores associated with change in hemoglobin from baseline to 6 months also showed a significant relationship between increasing hemoglobin and improved health status (5.9 ± 1.8 units for a hemoglobin increase of ≥1 g/dL, 0.7 ± 1.2 units for change in hemoglobin <1 g/dL, and -2.6 ± 1.4 units for a ≥1 g/dL decrease in hemoglobin, P < .001). Conclusions: These prospective, observational results indicate that reduced hemoglobin is associated with poorer quality of life in patients with heart failure. Additional studies will be required to establish if this is a cause-and-effect relationship.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine