Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are caused by abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and veins. PAVM are fairly uncommon and the exact incidence in the pediatric population is not known. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is the most common etiology for PAVM in children. Symptoms of PAVM in children include dyspnea on exertion and exercise intolerance. Epistaxis is the most common symptom of pediatric PAVM patients with HHT. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography is the screening test of choice for the detection of PAVM. A non-contrasted helical multidetector computed tomography scan of the chest with 1-2.5° mm reconstructions is now considered the gold standard for determining whether a PAVM is amenable to treatment. Children with PAVM with a feeding artery diameter greater than 2-3° mm even if asymptomatic should be considered for transcatheter embolotherapy unless contraindicated. The aim of treatment is to prevent future complications of PAVM such as stroke and brain abscess.
- Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
- Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations
- Transcatheter embolotherapy
- Transthoracic contrast echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas