Radiofrequency Ablation. Post-ablation Assessment Using CT Perfusion with Pharmacological Modulation in a Rat Subcutaneous Tumor Model

Hanping Wu, Agata A. Exner, Tianyi M. Krupka, Brent D. Weinberg, Ravi Patel, John R. Haaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rationale and Objectives: Inflammatory reaction surrounding the ablated area is a major confounding factor in the early detection of viable tumor after radiofrequency (RF) ablation. A difference in the responsiveness of normal and tumor blood vessels to vasoactive agents may be used to distinguish these regions in post-ablation follow-up. The goal of this study was to examine longitudinal perfusion changes in untreated viable tumor and the peripheral hyperemic rim of RF-ablated tumor in response to a vasoconstrictor (phenylephrine) or vasodilator (hydralazine) in a subcutaneous rat tumor model. Materials and Methods: Bilateral subcutaneous shoulder tumors were inoculated in 24 BDIX rats and evenly divided into two groups (phenylephrine and hydralazine groups). One tumor in each animal was completely treated with RF ablation (at 90 ± 2°C for 3 minutes), and the other remained untreated. Computed tomographic perfusion scans before and after phenylephrine (10 μg/kg) or hydralazine (5 mg/kg) administration were performed 2, 7, and 14 days after ablation. Four rats per group were euthanized on each scan day, and pathologic evaluation was performed. The changes of blood flow in the peripheral rim of ablated tumor and untreated viable tumor in response to phenylephrine or hydralazine at each time point were compared. The diagnostic accuracy of viable tumor using the percentage change of blood flow in response to phenylephrine and hydralazine was compared using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Results: The peripheral rim of ablated tumor presented with a hyperemic reaction with dilated vessels and congestion on day 2 after ablation, numerous inflammatory vessels on day 7, and granulation tissue formation on day 14. Phenylephrine significantly decreased the blood flow in the peripheral hyperemic rim of ablated tumor on days 2, 7, and 14 by 16.3 ± 9.7% (P = .001), 24.0 ± 22.6% (P = .007), and 31.1 ± 25.4% (P = .045), respectively. In untreated viable tumor, the change in blood flow after phenylephrine was irregular and insignificant. Hydralazine decreased the blood flow in the peripheral rim of both ablated tumor and untreated viable tumor. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that reliable tumor diagnosis using the percentage change of blood flow in response to phenylephrine was noted on days 2 and 7, for which the areas under the curve were 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.00) and 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.00), respectively. However, tumor diagnosis using the blood flow change in response to hydralazine was unreliable. Conclusion: Phenylephrine markedly decreased blood flow in the peripheral hyperemic rim of ablated tumor but had little effect on the untreated viable tumor. Computed tomographic perfusion with phenylephrine may be useful in the long-term treatment assessment of RF ablation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-331
Number of pages11
JournalAcademic Radiology
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CT perfusion
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • postablation assessment
  • tumor perfusion
  • vasoactive agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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