Introduction: Radical cystectomy (RC) is a highly morbid procedure, with 30-day complication rates approaching 31%. Our objective was to determine risk factors for re-operation within 30 days following a RC for non-metastatic bladder cancer. Methods: We included all patients who underwent a RC for nonmetastatic bladder cancer using The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2014. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate predictors of re-operation. Results: A total of 2608 patients were included; 5.8% of patients underwent re-operation within 30 days. On multivariable analysis, increasing body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.07), African American race (vs. Caucasian OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.21-4.34), and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.45-3.74) were significant predictors of re-operation within 30 days of RC. Urinary diversion type (ileal conduit vs. continent) and history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy within 30 days prior to RC were not. Patients who underwent re-operation within this timeframe had a significantly higher mortality rate (4.0% vs. 1.6%) and were more likely to experience cardiac (7.2% vs. 1.9%), pulmonary (23.0% vs. 3.0%), neurological (2.0% vs. 0.49%), and venous thromboembolic events (10.5% vs. 5.4%), as well as infectious complications (64.5% vs. 24.1%), with a significantly longer hospital length of stay (16.5 vs. 7.0 days). Conclusions: Recognizing increasing BMI, COPD, and African American race as risk factors for re-operation within 30 days of RC will allow urologists to preoperatively identify such high-risk patients and prompt them to adopt more aggressive approaches to minimize postoperative surgical complications.
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