Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic moiety of immense importance as it acts as a primary “biolinker” in diverse synthetic routes to obtain bioactive compounds. Substituted benzimidazoles are known to possess a varied range of pharmacological applications, namely, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral like anti-HIV and anti-fungal. A number of reviews covering the important aspects of benzimidazoles such as pharmacological activities, SAR studies, and well-known methods of synthesis have appeared in the literature. However, green synthetic methods particularly using transition metal (TM) catalysts and their nanoparticles, although being more viable and extensively applied by researchers in the present scenario, have not been exclusively and expansively reviewed. Besides this, the vital precursors required for knitting the skeleton of benzimidazole are mainly o-aryldiamines. The conventional synthesis generally involved the condensation of these diamines with carbonyl/carboxylic acid derivatives either via high temperature heating or via adding strong acids, mostly resulting in poor yields or mixtures. However, recent trends are replacing these conditions by mild and green conditions through TM catalysts. Therefore, the current review emphasizes on the recent trends adopted in the synthesis of benzimidazoles using condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamines and various aldehydes/ester/amide/alcohols with TM in a catalytic role in nanoform and under environmentally benign green conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry