Recommendations for Preclinical Research in Hemorrhagic Transformation

Susan C. Fagan, Paul A. Lapchak, David S. Liebeskind, Tauheed Ishrat, Adviye Ergul

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is an important complication of ischemic stroke and is responsible for most of the mortality associated with acute reperfusion therapy. Although many important publications address the preclinical models of ischemic stroke, there are no current recommendations on the conduct of research aimed at understanding the mechanisms and consequences of HT. The purpose of this review is to present the various models used in HT research, the clinical correlates, and the experimental variables known to influence the quantitation of HT in preclinical investigation. Lastly, recommendations for the conduct of preclinical research in HT are provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-327
Number of pages6
JournalTranslational Stroke Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Animal models
  • Hemorrhagic infarction
  • Hemorrhagic transformation
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Tissue plasminogen activator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Recommendations for Preclinical Research in Hemorrhagic Transformation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this