Reexamining the factor structure of the test of gross motor development–second edition: Application of exploratory structural equation modeling

Alex C. Garn, E. Kipling Webster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition (TGMD-2) is a widely used evaluation tool of children’s fundamental motor skills (FMS). This study illustrates how exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) addresses current limitations associated with TGMD-2 factor structure. Using the normative dataset from the TGMD-2 manual, we test alternative measurement models using ESEM and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and assess measurement invariance between boys and girls and across age. Findings highlight complexity and poor discriminant validity in the two-factor solution that is accentuated when relying on CFA independent clusters assumption. Results also demonstrate differential item functioning (DIF) across age for three of the 12 TGMD-2 indicators. Taken together, this study provides valuable information on the need to reevaluate the TGMD-2 factor structure and can guide revisions for the third edition of the TGMD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)200-212
Number of pages13
JournalMeasurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 3 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Fundamental motor skills
  • exploratory structural equation modeling
  • measurement invariance
  • test of gross motor development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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