Refined food addiction: A classic substance use disorder

J. R. Ifland, H. G. Preuss, M. T. Marcus, K. M. Rourke, W. C. Taylor, K. Burau, William Solomon Jacobs, W. Kadish, G. Manso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

184 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Overeating in industrial societies is a significant problem, linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, and the resultant adverse health consequences. We advance the hypothesis that a possible explanation for overeating is that processed foods with high concentrations of sugar and other refined sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, fat, salt, and caffeine are addictive substances. Therefore, many people lose control over their ability to regulate their consumption of such foods. The loss of control over these foods could account for the global epidemic of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We assert that overeating can be described as an addiction to refined foods that conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. To examine the hypothesis, we relied on experience with self-identified refined foods addicts, as well as critical reading of the literature on obesity, eating behavior, and drug addiction. Reports by self-identified food addicts illustrate behaviors that conform to the 7 DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. The literature also supports use of the DSM-IV criteria to describe overeating as a substance use disorder. The observational and empirical data strengthen the hypothesis that certain refined food consumption behaviors meet the criteria for substance use disorders, not unlike tobacco and alcohol. This hypothesis could lead to a new diagnostic category, as well as therapeutic approaches to changing overeating behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-526
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Hypotheses
Volume72
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2009

Fingerprint

Substance-Related Disorders
Hyperphagia
Food
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Obesity
Sweetening Agents
Aptitude
Feeding Behavior
Caffeine
Self Report
Tobacco
Reading
Salts
Fats
Alcohols
Carbohydrates
Incidence
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Ifland, J. R., Preuss, H. G., Marcus, M. T., Rourke, K. M., Taylor, W. C., Burau, K., ... Manso, G. (2009). Refined food addiction: A classic substance use disorder. Medical Hypotheses, 72(5), 518-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2008.11.035

Refined food addiction : A classic substance use disorder. / Ifland, J. R.; Preuss, H. G.; Marcus, M. T.; Rourke, K. M.; Taylor, W. C.; Burau, K.; Jacobs, William Solomon; Kadish, W.; Manso, G.

In: Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 72, No. 5, 01.05.2009, p. 518-526.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ifland, JR, Preuss, HG, Marcus, MT, Rourke, KM, Taylor, WC, Burau, K, Jacobs, WS, Kadish, W & Manso, G 2009, 'Refined food addiction: A classic substance use disorder', Medical Hypotheses, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 518-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2008.11.035
Ifland JR, Preuss HG, Marcus MT, Rourke KM, Taylor WC, Burau K et al. Refined food addiction: A classic substance use disorder. Medical Hypotheses. 2009 May 1;72(5):518-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2008.11.035
Ifland, J. R. ; Preuss, H. G. ; Marcus, M. T. ; Rourke, K. M. ; Taylor, W. C. ; Burau, K. ; Jacobs, William Solomon ; Kadish, W. ; Manso, G. / Refined food addiction : A classic substance use disorder. In: Medical Hypotheses. 2009 ; Vol. 72, No. 5. pp. 518-526.
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