This basic science review examines the role of cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. The first such studies suggested a role for nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP), and the downstream second messenger cGMP, in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Subsequently, many laboratories confirmed the anti-proliferative effects of the cGMP pathway in cultured cells and the anti-atherosclerotic effects of the pathway in in vivo animal models. Other studies suggested that the cGMP target, PKG, mediated the anti-proliferative effects of cGMP although other laboratories have not consistently observed these effects. On the other hand, PKG mediates cGMP-dependent increases in smooth muscle-specific gene expression, and in vivo studies suggest that PKG expression itself reduces vascular lesions. The mechanisms by which PKG regulates gene expression are addressed, but it still unknown how the cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in smooth muscle-specific gene expression and phenotype.
- Angiotensin receptor
- Caldesmon, calponin, and smoothelin
- Smooth Muscle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)