Reimbursement Incentives to Improve Adherence to Follow-Up of Cervical Cancer Cytology Screening Results in Peru

Daron G. Ferris, Jessica Chen, Austin Isaac, Evan Braithwaite, Elena Beideck, Nima Mikail, Debra Krotish, Jennifer L. Waller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective The purpose of this study was to determine Peruvian women's attitudes toward novel reimbursement incentives used to improve adherence to obtaining cervical cytology test results. Materials and Methods Women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Peru completed a 34-item Investigational Review Board-approved questionnaire. The questionnaire determined their attitudes toward various reimbursement incentives to improve adherence to obtaining cervical cytology results. Descriptive statistics, generalized linear models, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the analyses. Results Completed questionnaires were available for 997 women. Most women (51%) would be more likely to return for their Pap result if an incentive was provided, 79% (759/956) agreed that they would pay for the Pap test, and 51% (402/859) would be willing to pay 10 Soles or less. Quechua-speaking women considered follow-up more difficult (p <.0001) but were less likely to return for their Pap results (p <.0001), pay for the Pap test (p <.0001), and afford paying more than 5 Soles (p <.0001) than women who spoke Spanish or both languages. More women who earn 1000 Soles/year or less would likely return if incentivized (p <.0001), felt the incentive would help them remember to return (p =.0047), and would be willing to pay whether there was a rebate (p =.010) as compared with women earning more money. Conclusions A reimbursement incentive program designed to improve follow-up of cervical cytology test results was acceptable to most Peruvian women. Such a behavioral-modifying program may improve patient follow-up after cervical cytology testing. Implementation may reduce the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer in remote regions of the country.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-123
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019



  • behavioral modification
  • cancer screening
  • cervical cancer
  • cervical cytology
  • compliance
  • incentives

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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