Background Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors improve overall survival in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Survival compared with the general population by age, response, and type of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor is not known. With use of data from trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we compared overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP to that of general population. Methods In this cohort analysis, we included data from patients with CML-CP enrolled in six consecutive or parallel prospective clinical trials of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors at a single institution from July 30, 2000, to Sept 17, 2012. We analysed data for response and survival with the Kaplan-Meier method. For estimated overall survival in the general population, we obtained data from national vital statistics reports and matched to patients with CML-CP by age, sex, ethnicity, and year at diagnosis. We assessed numbers and causes of death within 1 year of beginning treatment by age group and by response to therapy. We then did univariate analysis and multivariate analysis to investigate factors associated with survival probability. Findings Our analysis included 483 patients, 271 received imatinib, 105 received nilotinib, and 107 received dasatinib. Most patients were younger than 65 years, and no patients were older than 85 years. Median follow-up was 99·4 months (IQR 44·9–121·6), by which time 53 (11%) patients had died. The most common causes of death were progression to advanced disease stage, including complications of stem-cell transplantation (17 [4%] patients), secondary malignancies (nine [2%] patients), and cardiovascular causes (nine [2%] patients). 5-year overall survival in patients with CML-CP decreased in older age categories. For the whole population of patients with CML-CP, 5-year survival was only slightly lower than that of the matched general population (relative survival 94·7% [95% 92·1–97·4]). Individuals of all ages with a report of complete cytogenetic response to treatment or deeper within 1 year had a 5-year survival similar to that of the general population. Interpretation In the era of treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, patients diagnosed with CML-CP can expect a 5-year survival that is only slightly lower than that of the general population. With access to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, most patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia could enjoy a near normal life expectancy. Funding MD Anderson Cancer Center, National Cancer Institute.
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