Although the expression of the metastases-associated gene MTA1 correlates with tumor metastases, its role in regulating type IV collagenase expression is unknown. Enforced MTA1 expression in HT1080 cells reduced basal and 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced 92-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9) protein/mRNA levels. DNase I hypersensitivity and PstI accessibility assays revealed multiple regions of the MMP-9 promoter (-650/-450 and -120/+1), showing reduced hypersensitivity in the MTA1-expressing cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated MTA1 binding to the distal region, which spans several regulatory cis elements. Coimmunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay experiments revealed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2)-MTA1 protein-protein interactions and the MTA1-dependent recruitment of HDAC2 to the distal MMP-9 promoter region, yielding diminished histone H3/H4 acetylation. However, HDAC2 binding and H3/H4 acetylation at the proximal MMP-9 region were unaffected by MTA1 expression. Furthermore, trichostatin treatment only partially relieved MTA1-repressed MMP-9 expression, indicating a HDAC-insensitive component possibly involving the nucleosome-remodeling Mi2 activity, which was recruited to the promoter by MTA1. In summary, (a) MMP-9 adds to a short list of MTA1-regulated genes, which so far only includes c-myc and pS2, and (b) MTA1 binds to the MMP-9 promoter, thereby repressing expression of this type IV collagenase via histone-dependent and independent mechanisms.
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