Objectives. Because of the difficulty of accessing the prostate for tissue sampling after surgical removal of the rectum and obliteration of the anus, we started an early detection program for prostate cancer in all men scheduled for abdominoperineal resection. Methods. Twenty consecutive men were screened for prostatic adenocarcinoma before planned abdominoperineal resection for colorectal pathologic findings. Patients were 48 to 77 years old (mean 66.9). Screening included serum prostate-specific antigen determination and digital rectal examination. Those patients with suspicious findings underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided sextant biopsies of the prostate. Results. One patient was excluded because of a prior history of prostate cancer. Six (31.6%) of the remaining 19 patients demonstrated elevated prostate-specific antigen levels (greater than 4.0 ng/mL); two of these patients also had an abnormal digital rectal examination. Transrectal ultrasound and prostate biopsies in these 6 patients revealed prostatic adenocarcinoma in 3 patients (50% of those undergoing biopsies or 15.8% of those screened). The 13 patients who did not undergo prostate biopsies had prostate-specific antigen levels from 0.4 to 2.4 ng/mL (mean 0.9) and normal prostate glands according to the digital rectal examinations. Conclusions. Screening for prostate cancer in men 50 years old or older with 10 years or longer life expectancy before they undergo abdominoperineal resection detects a significant number of prostatic malignancies and should be encouraged.
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