Review of the Therapeutic Uses of Liraglutide

Gina J. Ryan, Karla T. Foster, Lynetta Johnson Jobe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone that increases blood glucose and is a drug target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide, a subcutaneous, once-daily GLP-1 agonist, is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States and Europe. It also has been studied for weight loss. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review all of the relevant literature on the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical trials, safety, drug interactions, cost, and place in therapy of liraglutide. Methods: Literature searches of MEDLINE between 1969 and September 2010, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between 1970 and September 2010, American Diabetes Association Meeting abstracts (2008-2010), and European Association for the Study of Diabetes abstracts (2008-2010) were performed using liraglutide, Victoza, and NN2211 as key terms. Results: Thirteen randomized controlled trials were identified and summarized. Liraglutide has been shown to increase glucose-dependent insulin release by 34% to118% and reduce postprandial glucagon levels by 20%. Studies showed that liraglutide, as monotherapy and in combination with glimepiride, metformin, and/or rosiglitazone, lowers glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) between 0.84% and 1.5%. Transient nausea was reported by 7% to 40% of subjects. Severe hypoglycemia-glucose <55 mg/dL-was observed by 2.5% of subjects in 1 trial. Conclusion: Liraglutide safely and effectively reduces HbA 1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. The most recent American Diabetes Association guidelines recommended a GLP-1 agonist along with metformin as a second-tier therapy for type 2 diabetes. Although the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinologists' guidelines recommended it for first-line monotherapy in patients with HbA 1c between 6.5% and 7.5% and with metformin if HbA 1c is between 7.6% and 8.5%, liraglutide should be considered for patients who cannot tolerate first-line agents or if an additional agent is needed to help reach target HbA 1c goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)793-811
Number of pages19
JournalClinical Therapeutics
Volume33
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Fingerprint

Therapeutic Uses
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Metformin
rosiglitazone
glimepiride
Guidelines
Liraglutide
Glucose
Drug Costs
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Therapeutics
Glucagon
Drug Interactions
Hypoglycemia
MEDLINE
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Nausea
Blood Glucose
Weight Loss

Keywords

  • Exenatide
  • GLP-1 agonist
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Incretin hormones
  • Liraglutide
  • NN2211
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Victoza

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Review of the Therapeutic Uses of Liraglutide. / Ryan, Gina J.; Foster, Karla T.; Jobe, Lynetta Johnson.

In: Clinical Therapeutics, Vol. 33, No. 7, 01.01.2011, p. 793-811.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Ryan, Gina J. ; Foster, Karla T. ; Jobe, Lynetta Johnson. / Review of the Therapeutic Uses of Liraglutide. In: Clinical Therapeutics. 2011 ; Vol. 33, No. 7. pp. 793-811.
@article{9dfc58cef16648bbad74b218bcc1ff60,
title = "Review of the Therapeutic Uses of Liraglutide",
abstract = "Background: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone that increases blood glucose and is a drug target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide, a subcutaneous, once-daily GLP-1 agonist, is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States and Europe. It also has been studied for weight loss. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review all of the relevant literature on the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical trials, safety, drug interactions, cost, and place in therapy of liraglutide. Methods: Literature searches of MEDLINE between 1969 and September 2010, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between 1970 and September 2010, American Diabetes Association Meeting abstracts (2008-2010), and European Association for the Study of Diabetes abstracts (2008-2010) were performed using liraglutide, Victoza, and NN2211 as key terms. Results: Thirteen randomized controlled trials were identified and summarized. Liraglutide has been shown to increase glucose-dependent insulin release by 34{\%} to118{\%} and reduce postprandial glucagon levels by 20{\%}. Studies showed that liraglutide, as monotherapy and in combination with glimepiride, metformin, and/or rosiglitazone, lowers glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) between 0.84{\%} and 1.5{\%}. Transient nausea was reported by 7{\%} to 40{\%} of subjects. Severe hypoglycemia-glucose <55 mg/dL-was observed by 2.5{\%} of subjects in 1 trial. Conclusion: Liraglutide safely and effectively reduces HbA 1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. The most recent American Diabetes Association guidelines recommended a GLP-1 agonist along with metformin as a second-tier therapy for type 2 diabetes. Although the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinologists' guidelines recommended it for first-line monotherapy in patients with HbA 1c between 6.5{\%} and 7.5{\%} and with metformin if HbA 1c is between 7.6{\%} and 8.5{\%}, liraglutide should be considered for patients who cannot tolerate first-line agents or if an additional agent is needed to help reach target HbA 1c goals.",
keywords = "Exenatide, GLP-1 agonist, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Incretin hormones, Liraglutide, NN2211, Type 2 diabetes, Victoza",
author = "Ryan, {Gina J.} and Foster, {Karla T.} and Jobe, {Lynetta Johnson}",
year = "2011",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.06.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "33",
pages = "793--811",
journal = "Clinical Therapeutics",
issn = "0149-2918",
publisher = "Excerpta Medica",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Review of the Therapeutic Uses of Liraglutide

AU - Ryan, Gina J.

AU - Foster, Karla T.

AU - Jobe, Lynetta Johnson

PY - 2011/1/1

Y1 - 2011/1/1

N2 - Background: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone that increases blood glucose and is a drug target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide, a subcutaneous, once-daily GLP-1 agonist, is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States and Europe. It also has been studied for weight loss. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review all of the relevant literature on the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical trials, safety, drug interactions, cost, and place in therapy of liraglutide. Methods: Literature searches of MEDLINE between 1969 and September 2010, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between 1970 and September 2010, American Diabetes Association Meeting abstracts (2008-2010), and European Association for the Study of Diabetes abstracts (2008-2010) were performed using liraglutide, Victoza, and NN2211 as key terms. Results: Thirteen randomized controlled trials were identified and summarized. Liraglutide has been shown to increase glucose-dependent insulin release by 34% to118% and reduce postprandial glucagon levels by 20%. Studies showed that liraglutide, as monotherapy and in combination with glimepiride, metformin, and/or rosiglitazone, lowers glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) between 0.84% and 1.5%. Transient nausea was reported by 7% to 40% of subjects. Severe hypoglycemia-glucose <55 mg/dL-was observed by 2.5% of subjects in 1 trial. Conclusion: Liraglutide safely and effectively reduces HbA 1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. The most recent American Diabetes Association guidelines recommended a GLP-1 agonist along with metformin as a second-tier therapy for type 2 diabetes. Although the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinologists' guidelines recommended it for first-line monotherapy in patients with HbA 1c between 6.5% and 7.5% and with metformin if HbA 1c is between 7.6% and 8.5%, liraglutide should be considered for patients who cannot tolerate first-line agents or if an additional agent is needed to help reach target HbA 1c goals.

AB - Background: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone that increases blood glucose and is a drug target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide, a subcutaneous, once-daily GLP-1 agonist, is approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States and Europe. It also has been studied for weight loss. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review all of the relevant literature on the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, clinical trials, safety, drug interactions, cost, and place in therapy of liraglutide. Methods: Literature searches of MEDLINE between 1969 and September 2010, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between 1970 and September 2010, American Diabetes Association Meeting abstracts (2008-2010), and European Association for the Study of Diabetes abstracts (2008-2010) were performed using liraglutide, Victoza, and NN2211 as key terms. Results: Thirteen randomized controlled trials were identified and summarized. Liraglutide has been shown to increase glucose-dependent insulin release by 34% to118% and reduce postprandial glucagon levels by 20%. Studies showed that liraglutide, as monotherapy and in combination with glimepiride, metformin, and/or rosiglitazone, lowers glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) between 0.84% and 1.5%. Transient nausea was reported by 7% to 40% of subjects. Severe hypoglycemia-glucose <55 mg/dL-was observed by 2.5% of subjects in 1 trial. Conclusion: Liraglutide safely and effectively reduces HbA 1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. The most recent American Diabetes Association guidelines recommended a GLP-1 agonist along with metformin as a second-tier therapy for type 2 diabetes. Although the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinologists' guidelines recommended it for first-line monotherapy in patients with HbA 1c between 6.5% and 7.5% and with metformin if HbA 1c is between 7.6% and 8.5%, liraglutide should be considered for patients who cannot tolerate first-line agents or if an additional agent is needed to help reach target HbA 1c goals.

KW - Exenatide

KW - GLP-1 agonist

KW - Glucagon-like peptide-1

KW - Incretin hormones

KW - Liraglutide

KW - NN2211

KW - Type 2 diabetes

KW - Victoza

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79960264355&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79960264355&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.06.004

DO - 10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.06.004

M3 - Review article

VL - 33

SP - 793

EP - 811

JO - Clinical Therapeutics

JF - Clinical Therapeutics

SN - 0149-2918

IS - 7

ER -