Revisiting traumatic brain injury: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic interventions

Abbas Jarrahi, Molly Braun, Meenakshi Ahluwalia, Rohan V. Gupta, Michael Wilson, Stephanie Munie, Pankaj Ahluwalia, John R. Vender, Fernando L. Vale, Krishnan M. Dhandapani, Kumar Vaibhav

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Studying the complex molecular mechanisms involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is crucial for developing new therapies for TBI. Current treatments for TBI are primarily focused on patient stabilization and symptom mitigation. However, the field lacks defined therapies to prevent cell death, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cascades which lead to chronic pathology. Little can be done to treat the mechanical damage that occurs during the primary insult of a TBI; however, secondary injury mechanisms, such as inflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, edema formation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and cell death, can be targeted by therapeutic interventions. Elucidating the many mechanisms underlying secondary injury and studying targets of neuroprotective therapeutic agents is critical for developing new treatments. Therefore, we present a review on the molecular events following TBI from inflammation to programmed cell death and discuss current research and the latest therapeutic strategies to help understand TBI-mediated secondary injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number389
Pages (from-to)1-42
Number of pages42
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Apoptosis
  • Brain injury
  • Edema
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neurotrauma
  • Oxidative stress
  • Therapeutic strategies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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