The Philadelphia 9;22 chromosome translocation has two common isoforms that are preferentially associated with distinct subtypes of leukemia. The p210 variant is the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) whereas p190 is frequently associated with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The only sequence difference between the two isoforms is the guanidine exchange factor domain. This guanidine exchange factor is reported to activate RHO family GTPases in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. It is not clear whether and, if so, how RHOA contributes to progression of p210 CML. Here we show that knockout of RHOA in the K562 and KU812, p210-expressing cell lines leads to suppression of leukemogenesis in animal models in vivo. RNA-sequencing analysis of the mock control and null cells demonstrated a distinct change in the gene expression profile as a result of RHOA deletion, with significant downregulation of genes involved in cell activation and cell adhesion. Cellular analysis revealed that RHOA knockout leads to impaired cell adhesion and migration and, most importantly, the homing ability of leukemia cells to the bone marrow, which may be responsible for the attenuated leukemia progression. We also identified IGFBP2 as an important downstream target of RHOA. Further mechanistic investigation showed that RHOA activation leads to relocation of the serum response factor (SRF) into the nucleus, where it directly activates IGFBP2. Knockout of IGFBP2 in CML cells suppressed cell adhesion/invasion, as well as leukemogenesis in vivo. This elevated IGFBP2 expression was confirmed in primary CML samples. Thus, we demonstrate one mechanism whereby the RHOA-SRF-IGFBP2 signaling axis contributes to the development of leukemia in cells expressing the p210 BCR-ABL1 fusion kinase.
ASJC Scopus subject areas