Background and Purpose. Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity have been identified as key mediators of early vascular damage after ischemic stroke. Somewhat surprisingly, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, candesartan, has been shown to acutely increase MMP activity while providing neurovascular protection. We aimed to determine the contribution of MMP and nitrative stress to the effects of angiotensin blockade in experimental stroke. Methods. Wistar rats (n = 9-14/group; a total of 99) were treated in a factorial design with candesartan 1 mg/kg IV, alone or in combination with either a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FeTPPs, 30 mg/kg IP or GM6001 50 mg/kg IP (MMP inhibitor). Neurological deficit, infarct, size and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) were measured after 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 21 h of reperfusion. MMP activity and nitrotyrosine expression were also measured. Results. Candesartan reduced infarct size and HT when administered alone (P = 0.0011) and in combination with FeTPPs (P = 0.0016). GM6001 did not significantly affect HT when administered alone, but the combination with candesartan caused increased HT (P < 0.0001) and worsened neurologic score (P = 0.028). Conclusions. Acute administration of candesartan reduces injury after stroke despite increasing MMP activity, likely by an antioxidant mechanism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology