Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) released from immune cells or other cell types activates its receptors, D prostanoid receptor (DP)1 and 2 (DP1 and DP2), to promote inflammatory responses in allergic and lung diseases. Prostaglandin-mediated inflammation may also contribute to vascular diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the role of DP receptors in the pathogenesis of AAA has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, DP1-deficient mice and pharmacological inhibitors of either DP1 or DP2 were tested in two distinct mouse models of AAA formation: angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and calcium chloride (CaCl2) application. DP1-deficient mice [both heterozygous (DP1+/-) and homozygous (DP1-/-)] were protected against CaCl2-induced AAA formation, in conjunction with decreased matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) activity and adventitial inflammatory cell infiltration. In the AngII infusion model, DP1+/- mice, but not DP1-/- mice, exhibited reduced AAA formation. Interestingly, compensatory up-regulation of the DP2 receptor was detected in DP1-/- mice in response to AngII infusion, suggesting a potential role for DP2 receptors in AAA. Treatment with selective antagonists of DP1 (laropiprant) or DP2 (fevipiprant) protected against AAA formation, in conjunction with reduced elastin degradation and aortic inflammatory responses. In conclusion, PGD2 signaling contributes to AAA formation in mice, suggesting that antagonists of DP receptors, which have been extensively tested in allergic and lung diseases, may be promising candidates to ameliorate AAA.
- abdominal aortic aneurysm
- angiotensin converting enzyme 2
- calcium chloride
- prostaglandin D2