Serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide level as a predictive biomarker of osteonecrosis after dentoalveolar surgery in patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Mohamed E. Awad, Christina Sun, Joshua Jernigan, Mohammed Elsalanty

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations


Background: The authors’ aim in this systematic review was to evaluate the validity of using preoperative serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (CTX) levels as a predictive factor of increased risk of developing medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in patients receiving bisphosphonate (BP) therapy who underwent invasive dental procedures. Types of Studies Reviewed: The authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on the risk ratio. The authors used the methodological index for nonrandomized studies and Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies checklist to assess quality. Results: The authors included 18 clinical trials involving 2,301 patients. Most patients received alendronate or risedronate for an average of 62.14 months. The average serum CTX level in patients who received BP before surgery was 198.25 picograms per milliliter. Meta-analysis results showed that the cutoff in CTX level (150 pg/mL) was not predictive of MRONJ risk. The sensitivity of CTX values lower than 150 pg/mL was 34.26%, and the specificity was 77.08%. Conclusions and Practical Implications: The use of CTX levels to diagnose MRONJ risk after dental procedures in patients receiving BP is not justified. The cutoff of 150 pg/mL in serum CTX levels is not predictive of MRONJ. Further studies are needed to develop other reliable biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)664-675.e8
JournalJournal of the American Dental Association
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2019



  • Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis
  • alveolar bone
  • bone
  • clinical protocols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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