Setting time and expansion in different soaking media of experimental accelerated calcium-silicate cements and ProRoot MTA

Maria Giovanna Gandolfi, Francesco Iacono, Kelli Agee, Francesco Siboni, Franklin Chi Meng Tay, David Henry Pashley, Carlo Prati

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77 Scopus citations


Objectives: The setting time and the expansion in deionized water, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/80% PBS or hexadecane oil of experimental accelerated calcium-silicate cements and ProRoot MTA were evaluated. Study design: Different compounds such as sodium fluoride, strontium chloride, hydroxyapatite, and tricalcium phosphate were separately added to a basic experimental calcium-silicate cement to test their effect on setting and expansion. The initial and final setting times were determined using appropriate Gilmore needles. A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) device was used to test the restricted hygroscopic linear expansion over 180 minutes of cements immersed in different solutions. Results were statistically compared using a 2-way ANOVA test (cement type versus solution type). Results: All experimental cements showed initial setting times between 28 and 45 minutes and final setting times between 52 and 80 minutes. MTA showed a final setting time of 170 minutes. Final setting time of all experimental cements was faster than MTA. All cements showed slight (0.04%-0.77%) expansion in water, PBS, or FBS/PBS. Only fluoride-containing cement showed a significant expansion in water (6.68%) and in PBS (6.72%). The PBS/FBS contamination significantly reduced the expansion of fluoride-containing cement (2.98%) and MTA (0.07%). In contrast, cements showed a slight shrinkage when immersed in hexadecane, especially fluoride-containing cement. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that: (1) the setting time of calcium-silicate cements may be effectively reduced; (2) the expansion is a water dependent mechanism owing to water uptake, because no expansion occurred in cements immersed in oil; (3) a correlation between setting time and expansion in water and PBS exists; (4) fluorine-containing cement showed a significant expansion in water and in PBS; (5) the immersion in FBS/PBS strongly reduced the expansion of MTA and fluoride-doped cement suggesting that fluid contamination (ie, blood) during surgical procedures may greatly affect the expansion of some calcium-silicate cements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry(all)

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