Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation

Menaka C. Thounaojam, Ravirajsinh N. Jadeja, Sunita P. Salunke, Ranjitsinh V. Devkar, A. V. Ramachandran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATHSR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)832-843
Number of pages12
JournalImmunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012
Externally publishedYes



  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cell adhesion molecules
  • LDL oxidation
  • Macrophage
  • Sida rhomboidea.Roxb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

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