Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Post-Mastectomy Immediate Reconstruction in a Contemporary Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

Jessica R. Schumacher, Lauren J. Taylor, Jennifer L. Tucholka, Samuel Poore, Amanda Eggen, Jennifer Steiman, Lee G. Wilke, Caprice C. Greenberg, Heather B. Neuman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Background: Post-mastectomy reconstruction is a critical component of high-quality breast cancer care. Prior studies demonstrate socioeconomic disparity in receipt of reconstruction. Our objective was to evaluate trends in receipt of immediate reconstruction and examine socioeconomic factors associated with reconstruction in a contemporary cohort. Methods: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified women <75 years of age with stage 0–1 breast cancer treated with mastectomy (n = 297,121). Trends in immediate reconstruction rates (2004–2013) for the overall cohort and stratified by socioeconomic factors were examined using Join-point regression analysis, and annual percentage change (APC) was calculated. We then restricted our sample to a contemporary cohort (2010–2013, n = 145,577). Multivariable logistic regression identified socioeconomic factors associated with immediate reconstruction. Average adjusted predicted probabilities of receiving reconstruction were calculated. Results: Immediate reconstruction rates increased from 27 to 48%. Although absolute rates of reconstruction for each stratification group increased, similar APCs across strata led to persistent gaps in receipt of reconstruction. On multivariable logistic regression using our contemporary cohort, race, income, education, and insurance type were all strongly associated with immediate reconstruction. Patients with the lowest predicted probability of receiving reconstruction were patients with Medicaid who lived in areas with the lowest rates of high-school graduation (Black 42.4% [95% CI 40.5–44.3], White 45.7% [95% CI 43.9–47.4]). Conclusions: Although reconstruction rates have increased dramatically over the past decade, lower rates persist for disadvantaged patients. Understanding how socioeconomic factors influence receipt of reconstruction, and identifying modifiable factors, are critical next steps towards identifying interventions to reduce disparities in breast cancer surgical care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3017-3023
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of surgical oncology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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