Soy isoflavones have an antiestrogenic effect and alter mammary promoter hypermethylation in healthy premenopausal women

Wenyi Qin, Weizhu Zhu, Huidong Shi, John E. Hewett, Rachel L. Ruhlen, Ruth S. MacDonald, George E. Rottinghaus, Yin Chieh Chen, Edward R. Sauter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

99 Scopus citations

Abstract

We determined if soy isoflavones have dose-related estrogenic and methylation effects. Thirty-four healthy premenopausal women were randomized to 40 mg or 140 mg isoflavones daily through one menstrual cycle. Breast specific and systemic estrogenic effects were assessed measuring the estrogenic marker complement (C)3 and changes in cytology, whereas methylation assessment of 5 cancer related genes (p16, RASSF1A, RARβ2, ER, and CCND2) was performed on intraductal specimens. Serum genistein significantly increased after consuming both isoflavone doses. Cytology did not significantly change at either isoflavone dose. Serum C3 levels posttreatment were inversely related to change in serum genistein (r =-0.76, P = 0.0045) in women consuming low but not high dose isoflavones. The RARβ2 hypermethylation increase posttreatment correlated with the posttreatment genistein level considering the entire group (r = 0.67, P = 0.0017) and those receiving high-dose isoflavones (r = 0.68, P = 0.021). At the low but not the high isoflavone dose, CCND2 hypermethylation increase correlated with posttreatment genistein levels (r = 0.79, P = 0.011). In summary, the inverse correlation between C3 and genistein suggests an antiestrogenic effect. Isoflavones induced dose-specific changes in RARβ2 and CCND2 gene methylation, which correlated with genistein levels. This work provides novel insights into estrogenic and methylation effects of dietary isoflavones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)238-244
Number of pages7
JournalNutrition and Cancer
Volume61
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Oncology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cancer Research

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    Qin, W., Zhu, W., Shi, H., Hewett, J. E., Ruhlen, R. L., MacDonald, R. S., Rottinghaus, G. E., Chen, Y. C., & Sauter, E. R. (2009). Soy isoflavones have an antiestrogenic effect and alter mammary promoter hypermethylation in healthy premenopausal women. Nutrition and Cancer, 61(2), 238-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580802404196