Musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide; two of the most prevalent of which are osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Each affect millions in the aging population across the world and the associated morbidity and mortality contributes to billions of dollars in annual healthcare cost. Thus, it is important to better understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms of the disease process. Regulatory chemokine, CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, are recognized to be essential in the recruitment, localization, maintenance, development and differentiation of progenitor stem cells of the musculoskeletal system. CXCL12 signaling results in the development and functional ability of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, satellite cells and myoblasts critical to maintaining musculoskeletal homeostasis. Interestingly, one suggested pathologic mechanism of osteoporosis and sarcopenia is a decline in the regenerative capacity of musculoskeletal progenitor stem cells. Thus, because CXCL12 is critical to progenitor function, a disruption in the CXCL12 signaling axis might play a distinct role in these pathological processes. Therefore, in this article, we perform a review of CXCL12, its physiologic and pathologic function in bone and muscle, and potential targets for therapeutic development.
- Stromal cell-derived D factor-1 (CXCL12)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Molecular Biology