Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation

Kelli L. Agee, Edna L. Pashley, Anut Itthagarun, Hidehiko Sano, Franklin Chi Meng Tay, David Henry Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives. The submicron hiatus represents a potential space between the base of the collagen network and the mineralized dentin when dentin is acid-etched for bonding. These spaces were observed in SEM studies after acid-etched dentin specimens were critical point dried or dehydrated in hexamethyldisilasane. However, they have never been identified in TEM studies of dentin hybrid layers. This study critically examined the cause of submicron hiati formation using a silver staining technique to measure nanoleakage. Methods. Two multi-step, total-etch adhesives (One-Step, Bisco; Single Bond, 3M) and two single-step, self-etching adhesives (Prompt L-Pop, ESPE; One-Up Bond F, Tokuyama) were examined. Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and a lining composite. In each adhesive group, 0.8 mm thick slabs from the same bonded tooth were coated with nail varnish applied 1 mm from the bonded interfaces. The varnish was either left to dry completely for 10 min before immersing in 50 wt% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 24 h (group D), or painted on blotted tooth slabs that were immediately dropped into the AgNO3 solution (group M). After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the amount and distribution of silver uptake. Results. Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all adhesive-bonded teeth, regardless of brand. Fine reticular silver deposits were also found in the underlying undemineralized dentin. In group D, submicron hiati were seen as tunnels of heavy silver deposits beneath hybrid layers. Specifically, a hiatus occurred between the undemineralized intertubular dentin and a cohesively fractured layer of the same matrix that was attached to the base of the hybrid layer. Hiati were completely absent in group M, regardless of the brand of adhesive. Significance. Submicron hiati are artifacts created by desiccation during specimen processing, and should be referred to as such in future studies of bonded dentin interfaces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-68
Number of pages9
JournalDental Materials
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2003

Fingerprint

Desiccation
Dentin
Artifacts
Adhesives
Acids
Silver deposits
Varnish
Silver
Tooth
Paint
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
Epoxy Resins
Silver Nitrate
Nails
Linings
Collagen
Epoxy resins
Silver Staining
Etching

Keywords

  • Etched dentin
  • Hybrid layer
  • Nanoleakage
  • Silver staining
  • Submicron hiatus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Agee, K. L., Pashley, E. L., Itthagarun, A., Sano, H., Tay, F. C. M., & Pashley, D. H. (2003). Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation. Dental Materials, 19(1), 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(02)00007-6

Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation. / Agee, Kelli L.; Pashley, Edna L.; Itthagarun, Anut; Sano, Hidehiko; Tay, Franklin Chi Meng; Pashley, David Henry.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 19, No. 1, 01.01.2003, p. 60-68.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Agee, KL, Pashley, EL, Itthagarun, A, Sano, H, Tay, FCM & Pashley, DH 2003, 'Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation', Dental Materials, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(02)00007-6
Agee, Kelli L. ; Pashley, Edna L. ; Itthagarun, Anut ; Sano, Hidehiko ; Tay, Franklin Chi Meng ; Pashley, David Henry. / Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation. In: Dental Materials. 2003 ; Vol. 19, No. 1. pp. 60-68.
@article{d954bb4b12904110b1355a878cb28d24,
title = "Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation",
abstract = "Objectives. The submicron hiatus represents a potential space between the base of the collagen network and the mineralized dentin when dentin is acid-etched for bonding. These spaces were observed in SEM studies after acid-etched dentin specimens were critical point dried or dehydrated in hexamethyldisilasane. However, they have never been identified in TEM studies of dentin hybrid layers. This study critically examined the cause of submicron hiati formation using a silver staining technique to measure nanoleakage. Methods. Two multi-step, total-etch adhesives (One-Step, Bisco; Single Bond, 3M) and two single-step, self-etching adhesives (Prompt L-Pop, ESPE; One-Up Bond F, Tokuyama) were examined. Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and a lining composite. In each adhesive group, 0.8 mm thick slabs from the same bonded tooth were coated with nail varnish applied 1 mm from the bonded interfaces. The varnish was either left to dry completely for 10 min before immersing in 50 wt{\%} silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 24 h (group D), or painted on blotted tooth slabs that were immediately dropped into the AgNO3 solution (group M). After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the amount and distribution of silver uptake. Results. Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all adhesive-bonded teeth, regardless of brand. Fine reticular silver deposits were also found in the underlying undemineralized dentin. In group D, submicron hiati were seen as tunnels of heavy silver deposits beneath hybrid layers. Specifically, a hiatus occurred between the undemineralized intertubular dentin and a cohesively fractured layer of the same matrix that was attached to the base of the hybrid layer. Hiati were completely absent in group M, regardless of the brand of adhesive. Significance. Submicron hiati are artifacts created by desiccation during specimen processing, and should be referred to as such in future studies of bonded dentin interfaces.",
keywords = "Etched dentin, Hybrid layer, Nanoleakage, Silver staining, Submicron hiatus",
author = "Agee, {Kelli L.} and Pashley, {Edna L.} and Anut Itthagarun and Hidehiko Sano and Tay, {Franklin Chi Meng} and Pashley, {David Henry}",
year = "2003",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0109-5641(02)00007-6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
pages = "60--68",
journal = "Dental Materials",
issn = "0109-5641",
publisher = "Elsevier Science",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Submicron hiati in acid-etched dentin are artifacts of desiccation

AU - Agee, Kelli L.

AU - Pashley, Edna L.

AU - Itthagarun, Anut

AU - Sano, Hidehiko

AU - Tay, Franklin Chi Meng

AU - Pashley, David Henry

PY - 2003/1/1

Y1 - 2003/1/1

N2 - Objectives. The submicron hiatus represents a potential space between the base of the collagen network and the mineralized dentin when dentin is acid-etched for bonding. These spaces were observed in SEM studies after acid-etched dentin specimens were critical point dried or dehydrated in hexamethyldisilasane. However, they have never been identified in TEM studies of dentin hybrid layers. This study critically examined the cause of submicron hiati formation using a silver staining technique to measure nanoleakage. Methods. Two multi-step, total-etch adhesives (One-Step, Bisco; Single Bond, 3M) and two single-step, self-etching adhesives (Prompt L-Pop, ESPE; One-Up Bond F, Tokuyama) were examined. Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and a lining composite. In each adhesive group, 0.8 mm thick slabs from the same bonded tooth were coated with nail varnish applied 1 mm from the bonded interfaces. The varnish was either left to dry completely for 10 min before immersing in 50 wt% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 24 h (group D), or painted on blotted tooth slabs that were immediately dropped into the AgNO3 solution (group M). After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the amount and distribution of silver uptake. Results. Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all adhesive-bonded teeth, regardless of brand. Fine reticular silver deposits were also found in the underlying undemineralized dentin. In group D, submicron hiati were seen as tunnels of heavy silver deposits beneath hybrid layers. Specifically, a hiatus occurred between the undemineralized intertubular dentin and a cohesively fractured layer of the same matrix that was attached to the base of the hybrid layer. Hiati were completely absent in group M, regardless of the brand of adhesive. Significance. Submicron hiati are artifacts created by desiccation during specimen processing, and should be referred to as such in future studies of bonded dentin interfaces.

AB - Objectives. The submicron hiatus represents a potential space between the base of the collagen network and the mineralized dentin when dentin is acid-etched for bonding. These spaces were observed in SEM studies after acid-etched dentin specimens were critical point dried or dehydrated in hexamethyldisilasane. However, they have never been identified in TEM studies of dentin hybrid layers. This study critically examined the cause of submicron hiati formation using a silver staining technique to measure nanoleakage. Methods. Two multi-step, total-etch adhesives (One-Step, Bisco; Single Bond, 3M) and two single-step, self-etching adhesives (Prompt L-Pop, ESPE; One-Up Bond F, Tokuyama) were examined. Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and a lining composite. In each adhesive group, 0.8 mm thick slabs from the same bonded tooth were coated with nail varnish applied 1 mm from the bonded interfaces. The varnish was either left to dry completely for 10 min before immersing in 50 wt% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 24 h (group D), or painted on blotted tooth slabs that were immediately dropped into the AgNO3 solution (group M). After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the amount and distribution of silver uptake. Results. Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all adhesive-bonded teeth, regardless of brand. Fine reticular silver deposits were also found in the underlying undemineralized dentin. In group D, submicron hiati were seen as tunnels of heavy silver deposits beneath hybrid layers. Specifically, a hiatus occurred between the undemineralized intertubular dentin and a cohesively fractured layer of the same matrix that was attached to the base of the hybrid layer. Hiati were completely absent in group M, regardless of the brand of adhesive. Significance. Submicron hiati are artifacts created by desiccation during specimen processing, and should be referred to as such in future studies of bonded dentin interfaces.

KW - Etched dentin

KW - Hybrid layer

KW - Nanoleakage

KW - Silver staining

KW - Submicron hiatus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0041491390&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0041491390&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0109-5641(02)00007-6

DO - 10.1016/S0109-5641(02)00007-6

M3 - Article

C2 - 12498898

AN - SCOPUS:0041491390

VL - 19

SP - 60

EP - 68

JO - Dental Materials

JF - Dental Materials

SN - 0109-5641

IS - 1

ER -