Background: Aminoglycosides are a critical component of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment but data on their efficacy and adverse effects in Botswana is scarce. We determined the effect of amikacin on treatment outcomes and development of hearing loss in MDR-TB patients. Methods: Patients started on MDR-TB treatment between 2006 and 2012 were included. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of amikacin on treatment outcomes and development of hearing loss. Results: 437 MDR-TB patients were included, 288 (66%) of whom were HIV co-infected. 270 (62%) developed hearing loss, of whom 147 (54%) had audiometry. Of the 313 (72%) patients who completed treatment, 228 (73%) had a good outcome (cure or treatment completion). Good outcome was associated with longer amikacin treatment (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.21) and higher dosage (aOR 1.90, 95% CI 1.12 - 2.99). Longer amikacin duration (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.86 - 2.12) and higher dosage per weight per month (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.28) were associated with development of hearing loss. Amikacin treatment duration modified the effect of the dosage on the risk of hearing loss, increasing this risk as the duration increased. Conclusions: Amikacin was effective for MDR-TB treatment, but was associated with a high incidence of hearing loss especially in our study population. Total treatment duration and average monthly amikacin dose were associated with improved outcomes; however these were also associated with development of hearing loss.
- Hearing loss
- Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases