Testicular tumors: What radiologists need to know—differential diagnosis, staging, and management

Courtney Coursey Moreno, William C. Small, Juan C. Camacho, Viraj Master, Nima Kokabi, Melinda Lewis, Matthew Hartman, Pardeep Kumar Mittal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cryptorchidism, family history, and infertility are risk factors for testicular cancer. Most testicular cancers occur in young men aged 18–35 years, and seminoma is the most common cell type. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) and are staged at computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At US, testicular tumors usually appear as a solid intratesticular mass. Because the differential diagnosis includes infarct and infection, correlation with patient history and symptoms is important. At staging CT or MR imaging, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are considered regional lymph nodes, and the greatest nodal diameter is used to distinguish among N1–N3 disease. The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left testicular vein drains into the left renal vein. Because of venous and lymphatic drainage pathways, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the initial landing station for testicular cancers. Enlarged lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region, chest, and pelvis are considered distant metastases. Testicular cancer is initially treated with orchiectomy. The patient may then undergo active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node resection, depending primarily on the clinical stage. Radiologists play an important role in initial diagnosis, staging, and imaging surveillance of testicular malignancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)400-415
Number of pages16
JournalRadiographics
Volume35
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Testicular Neoplasms
Lymph Nodes
Veins
Ultrasonography
Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Seminoma
Cryptorchidism
Renal Veins
Orchiectomy
Inferior Vena Cava
Pelvis
Infertility
Radiologists
Drainage
Differential Diagnosis
Radiotherapy
Thorax
Neoplasm Metastasis
Drug Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Testicular tumors : What radiologists need to know—differential diagnosis, staging, and management. / Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Small, William C.; Camacho, Juan C.; Master, Viraj; Kokabi, Nima; Lewis, Melinda; Hartman, Matthew; Mittal, Pardeep Kumar.

In: Radiographics, Vol. 35, No. 2, 01.01.2015, p. 400-415.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Moreno, CC, Small, WC, Camacho, JC, Master, V, Kokabi, N, Lewis, M, Hartman, M & Mittal, PK 2015, 'Testicular tumors: What radiologists need to know—differential diagnosis, staging, and management', Radiographics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 400-415. https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.352140097
Moreno, Courtney Coursey ; Small, William C. ; Camacho, Juan C. ; Master, Viraj ; Kokabi, Nima ; Lewis, Melinda ; Hartman, Matthew ; Mittal, Pardeep Kumar. / Testicular tumors : What radiologists need to know—differential diagnosis, staging, and management. In: Radiographics. 2015 ; Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 400-415.
@article{83c54dd8434d46468c1dd5f17d6d76be,
title = "Testicular tumors: What radiologists need to know—differential diagnosis, staging, and management",
abstract = "Cryptorchidism, family history, and infertility are risk factors for testicular cancer. Most testicular cancers occur in young men aged 18–35 years, and seminoma is the most common cell type. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) and are staged at computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At US, testicular tumors usually appear as a solid intratesticular mass. Because the differential diagnosis includes infarct and infection, correlation with patient history and symptoms is important. At staging CT or MR imaging, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are considered regional lymph nodes, and the greatest nodal diameter is used to distinguish among N1–N3 disease. The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left testicular vein drains into the left renal vein. Because of venous and lymphatic drainage pathways, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the initial landing station for testicular cancers. Enlarged lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region, chest, and pelvis are considered distant metastases. Testicular cancer is initially treated with orchiectomy. The patient may then undergo active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node resection, depending primarily on the clinical stage. Radiologists play an important role in initial diagnosis, staging, and imaging surveillance of testicular malignancies.",
author = "Moreno, {Courtney Coursey} and Small, {William C.} and Camacho, {Juan C.} and Viraj Master and Nima Kokabi and Melinda Lewis and Matthew Hartman and Mittal, {Pardeep Kumar}",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1148/rg.352140097",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "35",
pages = "400--415",
journal = "Radiographics",
issn = "0271-5333",
publisher = "Radiological Society of North America Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Testicular tumors

T2 - What radiologists need to know—differential diagnosis, staging, and management

AU - Moreno, Courtney Coursey

AU - Small, William C.

AU - Camacho, Juan C.

AU - Master, Viraj

AU - Kokabi, Nima

AU - Lewis, Melinda

AU - Hartman, Matthew

AU - Mittal, Pardeep Kumar

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - Cryptorchidism, family history, and infertility are risk factors for testicular cancer. Most testicular cancers occur in young men aged 18–35 years, and seminoma is the most common cell type. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) and are staged at computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At US, testicular tumors usually appear as a solid intratesticular mass. Because the differential diagnosis includes infarct and infection, correlation with patient history and symptoms is important. At staging CT or MR imaging, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are considered regional lymph nodes, and the greatest nodal diameter is used to distinguish among N1–N3 disease. The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left testicular vein drains into the left renal vein. Because of venous and lymphatic drainage pathways, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the initial landing station for testicular cancers. Enlarged lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region, chest, and pelvis are considered distant metastases. Testicular cancer is initially treated with orchiectomy. The patient may then undergo active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node resection, depending primarily on the clinical stage. Radiologists play an important role in initial diagnosis, staging, and imaging surveillance of testicular malignancies.

AB - Cryptorchidism, family history, and infertility are risk factors for testicular cancer. Most testicular cancers occur in young men aged 18–35 years, and seminoma is the most common cell type. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) and are staged at computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At US, testicular tumors usually appear as a solid intratesticular mass. Because the differential diagnosis includes infarct and infection, correlation with patient history and symptoms is important. At staging CT or MR imaging, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are considered regional lymph nodes, and the greatest nodal diameter is used to distinguish among N1–N3 disease. The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left testicular vein drains into the left renal vein. Because of venous and lymphatic drainage pathways, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the initial landing station for testicular cancers. Enlarged lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region, chest, and pelvis are considered distant metastases. Testicular cancer is initially treated with orchiectomy. The patient may then undergo active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node resection, depending primarily on the clinical stage. Radiologists play an important role in initial diagnosis, staging, and imaging surveillance of testicular malignancies.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84924705885&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84924705885&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1148/rg.352140097

DO - 10.1148/rg.352140097

M3 - Article

C2 - 25763725

AN - SCOPUS:84924705885

VL - 35

SP - 400

EP - 415

JO - Radiographics

JF - Radiographics

SN - 0271-5333

IS - 2

ER -