Tetralogy of fallot with atrioventricular septal defect: Surgical strategies for repair and midterm outcome of pulmonary valve-sparing approach

Umang Gupta, Anastasios C. Polimenakos, Chawki El-Zein, Michel N. Ilbawi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Repair for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD) has been reported with good early and intermediate outcomes. Morbidity, however, remains significantly high. To date, repair of CAVSD/TOF using a pulmonary valve-sparing technique (PVS) and freedom from valve reoperation are not well defined. A study was undertaken to investigate outcomes. This study was conducted in as a retrospective investigation. Between January 1988 and December 2008, 13 consecutive patients with CAVSD/TOF were identified, and their records were reviewed retrospectively. Of these 13 patients, 9 had Rastelli type C CAVSD. Trisomy 21 was present in 9 cases (69 %; 7 with type C). Five patients had received a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt (SPS) before complete repair at a mean age 1.7 ± 0.6 months. All the patients survived until complete repair. At complete CAVSD/TOF repair, AVSD was corrected with a two-patch technique in all patients. For eight patients (61.5 %), PVS was used. The remaining five patients had transannular patch (TAP) repair. The mean age at complete repair was 6.3 ± 2.4 months. At complete repair, the mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 173.5 ± 30.6 min, and the cross-clamp time was 134.7 ± 28.8 min. There was one hospitalization and no late deaths. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years [interquartile range (IQR), 4.7-13.3 years]. The actuarial survival was 90.0 ± 9.5 % at 1 year, 90 ± 9.5 % at 5 years, and 90 ± 9.5 % at 8 years. Of the 12 survivors, 6 had some reintervention during the follow-up period. Within the first 11 years after complete repair, two patients underwent left atrioventricular (AV) valve repair, and one patient had right AV valve repair. Two patients had residual VSD closure. Four patients underwent the first right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reintervention for critical insufficiency or stenosis at a mean interval of 6 ± 21) months. One patient had a second RVOT reoperation. Findings showed that CAVSD/TOF with PVS was related to significantly higher freedom from RVOT reintervention (100 % at 1, 5, and 8 years compared with 80 ± 17.9 % at 1 year, 60 ± 21.9 % at 5 years, and 40 ± 21.9 % at 8 years for CAVSD/TOF using TAP; P < 0.05). No patient who underwent PVS had left ventricular outflow tract obstruction requiring reoperation. Overall freedom from any reintervention was 90.9 ± 8.6 % at 1 year, 71.6 ± 14.0 % at 5 years, and 53.7 ± 8.7 % at 8 years in this group of patients. Correction of TOF with CAVSD can be performed at low risk with favorable intermediate-term survival and satisfactory freedom from reoperation. Use of TAP can be avoided in almost two thirds of patients and may influence freedom from early RVOT reintervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)861-871
Number of pages11
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Atrioventricular septal defect
  • Pulmonary valve-sparing technique
  • Tetralogy of Fallot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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