There is a broad spectrum of biological valves available for use in patients. These valves offer the advantage of decreased need for anticoagulation, decreased incidence of thromboembolism and with variable hemodynamic performance. The spectrum ranges from porcine prostheses, modified orifice porcine prostheses, bovine pericardial valves, fresh and cryopreserved homografts, and stentless xenografts. All of these have been discussed in previous chapters, but a synopsis of each currently available prosthesis and their characteristics are defined below.
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