The relationship between breastfeeding and reported respiratory and gastrointestinal infection rates in young children

TEDDY study group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Although breastfeeding is touted as providing many health benefits to infants, some aspects of this relationship remain poorly understood. Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) is a prospective longitudinal study that follows children from birth through childhood, and collects data on illness events, breastfeeding duration, and time to introduction of formula or foods at 3 month intervals up until 4 years of age and at 6 months intervals thereafter. Exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding is examined in relation to the 3-month odds of a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection for 6861 children between the ages of 3-18 months, and 5666 children up to the age of 4 years. Analysis was performed using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equation methodology. All models were adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results: At 3-6 months of age, breastfeeding was found to be inversely associated with the odds of respiratory infections with fever (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.95), otitis media (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.94), and infective gastroenteritis (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.46-0.70), although the inverse association with respiratory illnesses was observed only for girls during the winter months. Between 6 and 18 months of age, breastfeeding within any 3 month period continued to be inversely associated with the odds of ear infection and infective gastroenteritis, and additionally with the odds of conjunctivitis, and laryngitis and tracheitis, over the same 3 month period within this age range. However, breastfeeding in this group was associated with increased reports of common cold. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely associated with the odds of otitis media up to 48 months of age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99) after breastfeeding had stopped. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that breastfeeding can be protective against multiple respiratory and gastrointestinal acute illnesses in some children up to at least 6 months of age, with duration of exclusive breastfeeding being somewhat protective of otitis media even after breastfeeding has stopped. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00279318. Date of registration: January 17, 2006 (proactively registered). First Posted: January 19, 2006.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number339
JournalBMC pediatrics
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 18 2019

Fingerprint

Breast Feeding
Respiratory Tract Infections
Otitis Media
Gastroenteritis
Tracheitis
Logistic Models
Laryngitis
Common Cold
Conjunctivitis
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Insurance Benefits
Infection
Ear
Longitudinal Studies
Fever
Parturition
Prospective Studies
Food

Keywords

  • Breastfeeding
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Illness
  • Infection
  • Otitis media
  • Respiratory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

The relationship between breastfeeding and reported respiratory and gastrointestinal infection rates in young children. / TEDDY study group.

In: BMC pediatrics, Vol. 19, No. 1, 339, 18.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Although breastfeeding is touted as providing many health benefits to infants, some aspects of this relationship remain poorly understood. Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) is a prospective longitudinal study that follows children from birth through childhood, and collects data on illness events, breastfeeding duration, and time to introduction of formula or foods at 3 month intervals up until 4 years of age and at 6 months intervals thereafter. Exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding is examined in relation to the 3-month odds of a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection for 6861 children between the ages of 3-18 months, and 5666 children up to the age of 4 years. Analysis was performed using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equation methodology. All models were adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results: At 3-6 months of age, breastfeeding was found to be inversely associated with the odds of respiratory infections with fever (OR = 0.82, 95{\%} CI = 0.70-0.95), otitis media (OR = 0.76, 95{\%} CI = 0.62-0.94), and infective gastroenteritis (OR = 0.55, 95{\%} CI = 0.46-0.70), although the inverse association with respiratory illnesses was observed only for girls during the winter months. Between 6 and 18 months of age, breastfeeding within any 3 month period continued to be inversely associated with the odds of ear infection and infective gastroenteritis, and additionally with the odds of conjunctivitis, and laryngitis and tracheitis, over the same 3 month period within this age range. However, breastfeeding in this group was associated with increased reports of common cold. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely associated with the odds of otitis media up to 48 months of age (OR = 0.97, 95{\%} CI = 0.95-0.99) after breastfeeding had stopped. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that breastfeeding can be protective against multiple respiratory and gastrointestinal acute illnesses in some children up to at least 6 months of age, with duration of exclusive breastfeeding being somewhat protective of otitis media even after breastfeeding has stopped. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00279318. Date of registration: January 17, 2006 (proactively registered). First Posted: January 19, 2006.",
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author = "{TEDDY study group} and Sandra Ke and Jill Norris and Frank, {Nicole M.} and Lynch, {Kristian F.} and Ulla Uusitalo and Jimin Yang and Maria L{\"o}nnrot and Virtanen, {Suvi M.} and Heikki Hy{\"o}ty and Norris, {Jill M.} and Marian Rewers and Kimberly Bautista and Judith Baxter and Daniel Felipe-Morales and Kimberly Driscoll and Frohnert, {Brigitte I.} and Marisa Gallant and Patricia Gesualdo and Michelle Hoffman and Rachel Karban and Edwin Liu and Adela Samper-Imaz and Andrea Steck and Kathleen Waugh and Hali Wright and Jorma Toppari and Simell, {Olli G.} and Annika Adamsson and Suvi Ahonen and Jorma Ilonen and Sanna Jokipuu and Leena Karlsson and Miia K{\"a}h{\"o}nen and Mikael Knip and Mirva Koreasalo and Kalle Kurppa and Tiina Latva-Aho and Markus Mattila and Elina M{\"a}ntym{\"a}ki and Katja Multasuo and Tiina Niininen and Sari Niinist{\"o} and Mia Nyblom and Paula Ollikainen and Petra Rajala and Jenna Rautanen and Anne Riikonen and Minna Romo and Suvi Ruohonen and Juulia R{\"o}nk{\"a}",
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T1 - The relationship between breastfeeding and reported respiratory and gastrointestinal infection rates in young children

AU - TEDDY study group

AU - Ke, Sandra

AU - Norris, Jill

AU - Frank, Nicole M.

AU - Lynch, Kristian F.

AU - Uusitalo, Ulla

AU - Yang, Jimin

AU - Lönnrot, Maria

AU - Virtanen, Suvi M.

AU - Hyöty, Heikki

AU - Norris, Jill M.

AU - Rewers, Marian

AU - Bautista, Kimberly

AU - Baxter, Judith

AU - Felipe-Morales, Daniel

AU - Driscoll, Kimberly

AU - Frohnert, Brigitte I.

AU - Gallant, Marisa

AU - Gesualdo, Patricia

AU - Hoffman, Michelle

AU - Karban, Rachel

AU - Liu, Edwin

AU - Samper-Imaz, Adela

AU - Steck, Andrea

AU - Waugh, Kathleen

AU - Wright, Hali

AU - Toppari, Jorma

AU - Simell, Olli G.

AU - Adamsson, Annika

AU - Ahonen, Suvi

AU - Ilonen, Jorma

AU - Jokipuu, Sanna

AU - Karlsson, Leena

AU - Kähönen, Miia

AU - Knip, Mikael

AU - Koreasalo, Mirva

AU - Kurppa, Kalle

AU - Latva-Aho, Tiina

AU - Mattila, Markus

AU - Mäntymäki, Elina

AU - Multasuo, Katja

AU - Niininen, Tiina

AU - Niinistö, Sari

AU - Nyblom, Mia

AU - Ollikainen, Paula

AU - Rajala, Petra

AU - Rautanen, Jenna

AU - Riikonen, Anne

AU - Romo, Minna

AU - Ruohonen, Suvi

AU - Rönkä, Juulia

PY - 2019/9/18

Y1 - 2019/9/18

N2 - Background: Although breastfeeding is touted as providing many health benefits to infants, some aspects of this relationship remain poorly understood. Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) is a prospective longitudinal study that follows children from birth through childhood, and collects data on illness events, breastfeeding duration, and time to introduction of formula or foods at 3 month intervals up until 4 years of age and at 6 months intervals thereafter. Exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding is examined in relation to the 3-month odds of a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection for 6861 children between the ages of 3-18 months, and 5666 children up to the age of 4 years. Analysis was performed using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equation methodology. All models were adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results: At 3-6 months of age, breastfeeding was found to be inversely associated with the odds of respiratory infections with fever (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.95), otitis media (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.94), and infective gastroenteritis (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.46-0.70), although the inverse association with respiratory illnesses was observed only for girls during the winter months. Between 6 and 18 months of age, breastfeeding within any 3 month period continued to be inversely associated with the odds of ear infection and infective gastroenteritis, and additionally with the odds of conjunctivitis, and laryngitis and tracheitis, over the same 3 month period within this age range. However, breastfeeding in this group was associated with increased reports of common cold. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely associated with the odds of otitis media up to 48 months of age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99) after breastfeeding had stopped. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that breastfeeding can be protective against multiple respiratory and gastrointestinal acute illnesses in some children up to at least 6 months of age, with duration of exclusive breastfeeding being somewhat protective of otitis media even after breastfeeding has stopped. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00279318. Date of registration: January 17, 2006 (proactively registered). First Posted: January 19, 2006.

AB - Background: Although breastfeeding is touted as providing many health benefits to infants, some aspects of this relationship remain poorly understood. Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) is a prospective longitudinal study that follows children from birth through childhood, and collects data on illness events, breastfeeding duration, and time to introduction of formula or foods at 3 month intervals up until 4 years of age and at 6 months intervals thereafter. Exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding is examined in relation to the 3-month odds of a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection for 6861 children between the ages of 3-18 months, and 5666 children up to the age of 4 years. Analysis was performed using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equation methodology. All models were adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results: At 3-6 months of age, breastfeeding was found to be inversely associated with the odds of respiratory infections with fever (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.95), otitis media (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.94), and infective gastroenteritis (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.46-0.70), although the inverse association with respiratory illnesses was observed only for girls during the winter months. Between 6 and 18 months of age, breastfeeding within any 3 month period continued to be inversely associated with the odds of ear infection and infective gastroenteritis, and additionally with the odds of conjunctivitis, and laryngitis and tracheitis, over the same 3 month period within this age range. However, breastfeeding in this group was associated with increased reports of common cold. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely associated with the odds of otitis media up to 48 months of age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99) after breastfeeding had stopped. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that breastfeeding can be protective against multiple respiratory and gastrointestinal acute illnesses in some children up to at least 6 months of age, with duration of exclusive breastfeeding being somewhat protective of otitis media even after breastfeeding has stopped. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00279318. Date of registration: January 17, 2006 (proactively registered). First Posted: January 19, 2006.

KW - Breastfeeding

KW - Gastroenteritis

KW - Gastrointestinal

KW - Illness

KW - Infection

KW - Otitis media

KW - Respiratory

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