The relationship of minor physical anomalies and other putative indices of developmental disturbance in schizophrenia to abnormalities of cerebral structure on magnetic resonance imaging

Eadbhard O'Callaghan, Peter Buckley, Cathy Madigan, Oonagh Redmond, John P. Stack, Anthony Kinsella, Conall Larkin, Joseph T. Ennis, John L. Waddington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Minor physical anomalies, together with obstetric complications, family history, and handedness status, were assessed to explore putative neurodevelopmental disturbance(s) in patients with schizophrenia whose cerebral structure had been examined previously by magnetic resonance imaging. Minor physical anomalies were related to negative symptoms in males and to premorbid intellectual function in females, but not to ventricular volume; however, three patients with evident neurodevelopmental anomalies of the ventricular system showed prominent minor physical anomalies. In exploratory analyses, obstetric complications were associated with left ventricular asymmetry, and a positive family history with inverse profiles of asymmetry in males vs. females; non-right-handedness was associated with increased ventricular volume in males but with poorer premorbid intellectual function in females. This nexus of relationships and their gender specificities suggest early dysmorphogenesis in schizophrenia that is related to sexual dimorphism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)516-524
Number of pages9
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 15 1995



  • Schizophrenia
  • gender differences
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • minor physical anomalies
  • neurodevelopment
  • sexual dimorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

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