Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by NADPH oxidase (NOX), an enzyme that reduces oxygen by using NADPH as a substrate. Apocynin (APO) is a catechol that is used as a NOX inhibitor, and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) can reduce intracellular ROS levels. In this work, the effect of APO and NAC on osteoclast formation were evaluated. APO and NAC significantly decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and the osteoclast area. We analyzed bone-marrow derived monocyte-macrophages (BMMs) that differentiated into osteoclasts after RANKL stimulation. Stimulation was associated with either APO or NAC treatment and osteoclastogenesis marker expression, including NFATc1, MMP-9, and DC-STAMP, was evaluated. APO decreased the intracellular calcium concentration by calcium channels other than ITPR1 and TPC2. On the other hand, APO reduced Tnfrsf11a (RANK) expression and did not alter Fam102a (EEIG1) expression. Therefore, our results demonstrate that APO inhibits osteoclastogenesis by the RANK-RANKL-related signaling pathways, decreases osteoclast markers, and reduces intracellular calcium concentration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology